By John N. Hathcock
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Additional resources for Nutritional Toxicology. Volume 3
Pryor, G. T . , Uyeno, E. , Tilson, Η. Α . , and Mitchell, C. L. (1983). Assessment of chemicals using a battery of neurobehavioral tests: A comparative study. Neurobehav. Toxicol. Teratol. 5, 91-117. Rafales, L. , Bornschein, R. , Michaelson, I. , Loch, R. , and Barker, G. F. (1979). Drug induced activity in lead-exposed mice. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 10, 9 5 - 1 0 4 . Rafales, L. , Lasley, S. M . , Greenland, R. D . , and Mandybur, T. (1983). Effects of acrylamide on locomotion and central monoamine function in the rat.
David Walker, and Mark H. Lewis structurally diverse xenobiotics are not an important consideration in the brain. However, mechanisms for transport, synthesis, and metabolism of numerous endogenous molecules (including the neurotransmitters) are present. It is possible that some toxicants act as "pseudosubstrates" for these systems, and this may influence toxicity. Probably the most well-known case is the toxicant 1methyl-4-phenyl-2,3,4,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). The toxicity of this agent requires conversion to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP + ) by brain monoamine oxidase and then cell entrance via neuronal uptake systems.
41 42 44 44 45 45 52 52 52 53 54 54 55 INTRODUCTION The nutritional quality of a food protein is determined by the composition of the essential amino acids, the digestibility of the protein, and the utilizability of the absorbed amino acids. The quantity of available amino acids absorbed, particularly of the first-limiting amino acids, plays a major role in determining protein quality. It is known that several essential amino acids, such as the sulfurcontaining amino acids and lysine, can exist either partially or completely in biologically unavailable forms in the protein, either in their native state or in proteins that have undergone food processing (Satterlee and Chang, 1982).
Nutritional Toxicology. Volume 3 by John N. Hathcock