By W. Norman Aldridge
Specializes in study strategies in toxicology, aiming to demonstrate strategies and kinds of toxicity from a mechanistic standpoint. Examples of chemical intoxicants are used to demonstrate mechanisms in each one level of toxicity.
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The application of DDT in organic solvents, rather than the usual suspensions in water, would lead to its absorption through contaminated skin. If the DDT is dissolved in food oils such as olive or ground nut oil, some DDT is absorbed from the gastro-intestinal tract via the usual routes of absorption of lipids (small intestine and the lymphatic system). If DDT is administered to rats by mouth in small amounts in food, the rate of partition into the fat depots (adipose tissue) is high and takes precedence over partition in toxic amounts into the nervous system.
In experimental toxicology, administration can be by other routes in procedures designed to answer particular questions. Rapid penetration of chemicals is best achieved when the substance has both lipophilic and hydrophilic properties. Oils penetrate the skin and, provided they or their solutes have sufficient solubility in water, reach the blood and are generally distributed throughout the body. Oils as solvents of other substances are used as a reliable way of administering substances. Drug administration via absorption through the skin is now often used (for example, the use of patches applied to the skin in order to supply a small dose of nicotine to those who are trying to break the habit of smoking).
6). 3 Continuous Exposure, Rapid Biological Effect, Slow but Complete Recovery Inhalation of carbon monoxide can lead to rapid death if the concentration is high, but exposure to a low concentration results in an insidious appearance of symptoms. The affinity of carbon monoxide for haemoglobin is approximately two hundred times that of oxygen; with 30–40% of haemoglobin in the carboxymonoxy form little effect is seen, but at around 50%, headache, weakness, vomiting and often collapse occur. At higher concentrations coma, convulsions, respiratory failure and death may result.
Mechanisms and Concepts in Toxicology by W. Norman Aldridge