By Ted A. Loomis
Loomis's necessities of Toxicology is an introductory textual content at the technological know-how of damaging biologic results linked to exposures to chemical compounds of every kind. The scope of this publication incorporates a dialogue of the foremost kinds of chemical compounds concerned; the final homes of chemical substances and biologic platforms as they impact the incidence of damaging biologic results; the tools used to illustrate those results; and the root for medical analysis and treatment of damaging results of chemical compounds on people. person examples are used to illustrate all the ideas below dialogue. this article is a useful source for toxicologists in addition to a accomplished advent to the subject for graduate and complex undergraduate scholars in toxicology and public future health. Key gains * The ''classic textbook'' in toxicology * thoroughly revised and up to date * comprises either ideas and strategies * calls for minimum history in chemistry and biology
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Extra resources for Loomis's Essentials of Toxicology
Therefore, if a compound is water-soluble and is carried freely across membranes, approximately two-thirds of the total amount of the foreign chemical in the body would be expected to be in the intracellular water. In contrast to this, the compound that could not pass the cellular membrane but was soluble in water would be partitioned in the extracellular water of the body. Thus, the addition of a foreign chemical, that is, a chemical not normally present in the cell, to an intact biologic system in its normal environment differs from the simple mixture of solutions of two or more chemicals.
There is no question that the compound may be considered harmful or safe, depending upon the dose given. The curve represents the concept by which the lethal dose for 50% of the animals is obtained. The lethal dose for 50% of the animals, which is commonly known as the LD50, is that dose of the compound that will Numbers in Toxicology 23 produce death in 50% of the animals. The LD50 is a statistically obtained virtual value. It is a calculated value which represents the best estimation of the dose required to produce death in 50% of the animals and is therefore always accompanied by some means of estimation of the error of the value, such as the probability range of the value.
Since one of the criteria of our experiment is that the response can be quantified regardless of the effect that is measured, then by further experiment each animal in a series of supposedly uniform members of a particular species may be given an adequate dose of the chemical to produce an identical response. The data obtained from such an experiment may be plotted in the form of a distribution or frequencyresponse curve. Such a representation for a hypothetical chemical agent is shown in Fig. 1.
Loomis's Essentials of Toxicology by Ted A. Loomis