By David O. Cooney
Highlighting activated charcoal's nice effectiveness in treating drug overdoses and poisonings in either people and animals, this complete, single-source reference brings jointly important details from each major learn at the use of activated charcoal for clinical purposes-describing all on hand charcoal items and their features.
Details activated charcoal's skill to minimize the systemic absorption of an enormous array of substances, chemical substances, and biochemical substances-including analgesics, antipyretics, sedatives, alkaloids, snake venoms, and bacterial and fungal pollution.
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Extra info for Activated Charcoal in Medical Applications, Second Edition
Adapted from Tebbutt and Bahiah (1977). 5, from a paper by Tebbutt and Bahiah (1977), illustrates this principle for three homologous series of compounds. Of course, an obvious limit to this rule is reached when the molecular sizes become large enough so that a significant number of pores become inaccessible. With dissimilar compounds, the size factor is often outweighed by constitutive effects. For example, we may indicate the effects of the presence of certain substituent groups as follows: Hydroxyl groups Amino groups Sulfonic groups Nitro groups Generally reduce adsorption Like hydroxyl, but greater effect Usually decrease adsorption Often increase adsorption Other groups (halogens) and bond types (double bonds, carbonyl bonds) have variable effects, depending on the nature of the host molecule.
It is clear that most of the internal surface area is associated with the smaller pores. It should be pointed out in passing that even if a charcoal is very finely powdered, its external surface area will still be very small compared to its internal surface area. There have been misconceptions about this in the literature in which writers have implied that the great surface area for drug adsorption by charcoal is due to its being finely divided. This implies that it is the external area which contributes most to the total surface area for adsorption.
From Cooney and Wijaya (1987). Reproduced by permission of the Engineering Foundation. ability of weak organic electrolytes with pH, and have applied it to data of theirs on p-nitrophenol and benzoic acid adsorption. All of these studies confirm the general prin ciple that adsorption varies inversely with the amount of charge on the adsorbing species. G. , NaCl) can enhance the adsorption of organic species to charcoal. The effect of adding a simple salt like NaCl to a system in which adsorption of an organic ion to charcoal is occurring is fairly simple: those salt ions which carry a charge opposite to that of the adsorbed organic ions are attracted to the spaces between adjacently adsorbed organic ions, and reduce the strength of repulsion of the adjacently adsorbed organic ions.
Activated Charcoal in Medical Applications, Second Edition by David O. Cooney