By Mark Rosenfelder
Create believable and real looking languages for RPGs, myth and technological know-how fiction, video clips or games, or overseas communication... or simply find out about how languages paintings from an strange, light-hearted point of view. The Language building equipment on zompist.com has helped a iteration of conlangers to appreciate and create languages. It's multiplied the following with assurance of semantics and pragmatics, language households, writing platforms, and pattern wordlists, in addition to an annotated pattern grammar. Revised version.
Read or Download The Language Construction Kit PDF
Best linguistics books
This ebook contributes to our becoming realizing of the character and improvement of language learner self-concept. It assesses the suitable literature within the disciplines of psychology and utilized linguistics and describes in-depth, qualitative examine reading the self-concepts of tertiary-level EFL freshmen.
Mongolic Phonology and the Qinghai-Gansu Languages
The peripheral Mongolic languages of the Qinghai-Gansu zone in China comprise
Eastern Yugur (Shira Yugur) and the Shirongol languages. The latter might be subdivided in a Monguor department, along with Mongghul and Mangghuer, and a Baoanic department, which include Baoan, Kangjia, and Dongxiang (Santa).
The inner taxonomy of the Qinghai-Gansu languages should be mentioned in a separate section.
The Qinghai-Gansu languages are more and more well-described. They
have additionally been the topic of reviews in language touch, usually within the context
of the Amdo or Qinghai-Gansu Sprachbund.
This learn will procedure the phonology of Qinghai-Gansu Mongolic
from a comparative old perspective. It presents an outline of the phonological advancements of the Qinghai-Gansu languages, evaluating them to the reconstructed ancestral language. whilst it is going to examine the
archaic positive factors that may be present in those languages, which will enhance the
reconstructions of person Mongolic lexemes.
The booklet ends with a comparative complement of approximately 1350
reconstructed universal Mongolic goods, followed through the trendy varieties they're in keeping with and, the place useful, arguments for the selected reconstruction.
- Grammar of Yessan-Mayo
- Voice: Form and Function
- The Noun Phrase in Functional Discourse Grammar
- Kurmanji Kurdish: A Reference Grammar with Selected Readings
Additional resources for The Language Construction Kit
B c. ,k"%(im d. ,k"1*d1 e. `Ób µSODQWDLQ¶ µWZLQV¶ µKHDUWV¶ µURRWV¶ µWZLQV¶ (class 5) (class 5) (class 6) (class 6) (class 6) The homorganic nasal consonant, as we have observed, is a regular prefix for classes 1b, 3b, 9 and 10 nouns. Its occurrence as stem initial consonant in this group of nouns in classes 19, 6 and 5 is quite an exception. My guess is that this nasal consonant is an old prefix which has undergone a metanalysis and has, in effect, become part of the stem in the examples in (12122)1.
B. c. d. e. Ä, µWKHDFWRISOD\LQJ¶ µWKHDFWRIVODSSLQJ¶ µWKHDFWRIORYLQJ¶ µWKHDFWRIWDNLQJ¶ µWKHDFWRIFURVVLQJ¶ (xiii) Gender 5 (Gerundials) (35) a. ¦dd b. *ÀÄ c. %/¦ d. ÀÓÄ e. /ÂÓÂ µVSHHFKODQJXDJH¶ µZDON¶ µODXJKWHU¶ µZLOGQHVV¶ µFU\¶ 4. Concord system Each of the noun classes presented above is associated with a particular nominal prefix and with a distinctive pattern of agreement borne by modifiers and arguments of the noun. Thus the form of the noun related word (modifiers and arguments) especially the initial consonant is determined by the class of the head noun such that each noun class will command the same concord prefixes or morphemes.
K'% *k'% d'% k'% &&$k'% Poss ³P\´ Int. '% Quant. Ï% #<'ÍÑ% $'ÍÑ% #<Í% $i% #<'% +'% #<'% $'% ,% d% There are three kinds of concord elements: CVC, CV, V and C. The CVC concord element is attested only in adjectives (numerals pattern with adjectives) used to modify classes 1 and 9 QRXQV 7KH YRZHO FRQFRUG HOHPHQW ZKLFK RFFXUV RQ WKH TXDQWLILHU ³DOOHYHU\´ XVXDOO\ JHWV deleted when the preceding noun ends in a vowel. 1. The CV element could be an oral or nasal consonant.
The Language Construction Kit by Mark Rosenfelder