Download PDF by David Allan Rees (auth.): Polysaccharide Shapes

By David Allan Rees (auth.)

ISBN-10: 0412130300

ISBN-13: 9780412130304

ISBN-10: 9401169063

ISBN-13: 9789401169066

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A further important influence that contributes to the strength of binding in cellulose is the stiffness of the chains. This follows from the 49 (a) ( b) (d) Fig. 8 Packing of cellulose chains in the natural and regenerated states: all views are end-on, down a bundle of chains. e. e. chain ends at the end of a bundle are of both types (hatched and not hatched). 50 Fig. 9 Equatorial groups which have an important influence on the flexibility at linkages between sugar units Ce ). g. as in Cb) compared to Ca».

5(a)). For the {3-I,3linkage they define a U-turn (Fig. 5(b)). For the {3-I,2linkage they define a twisted form (Fig. 5(c)). Whenever the zig-zag arrangement exists - other examples are in the a-I,3 linked units shown in Fig. 5( d) and the a-I ,4 linked galactose units in (e) - the chain is almost always of the ribbon family. When the U-turn arrangement exists - another example is in the chains of a-I,4 linked glucose units in Fig. 5(f) - the chain shape is of the hollow helix family. 1 Extracellular carbohydrate composites Carbohydrate-rich structures seem to exist externally to the plasma membrane of most types of living cell but their composition and organization varies widely.

The bonding between them would only be strong if such voids could be filled, for example by small species such as water or ions. In fact the buckled form is characteristic of carbohydrate anions such as polyguluronate and polygalacturonate for which a suitable cation can not only fit the cavity but also screen the electrostatic repulsion between like charges that would otherwise cause the chains to repel. One important cation to be involved in such complexation in biological systems is calcium, Ca ++.

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Polysaccharide Shapes by David Allan Rees (auth.)

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