By Werner Abraham (Ed.), Larisa Leisiö (Ed.)
Is the passive a unified common phenomenon? The declare derived from this quantity is that the passive, if no longer common, has turn into unified in response to functionality. Language as a way of verbal exchange wishes the passive, or passive-like buildings, and in the end develops them in keeping with different voices (impersonal energetic, center, reflexive), particular semantic meanings reminiscent of adversativity, or tense-aspect different types (stative,perfect, preterit). convinced participants evaluate the passives in quite a few languages and language teams, together with languages not often mentioned. one other crew of individuals takes a unique theoretical process towards passivization inside a extensive typological viewpoint. one of the languages mentioned are Vedic, Irish, Mandarin chinese language, Thai, Lithuanian, Mordvin, and Nganasan, subsequent to nearly all ecu languages. numerous theoretical frameworks comparable to Optimality concept, glossy Structuralist ways, position and Reference Grammar, Cognitive Semantics, allotted Morphology, and Case Grammar were utilized through the several authors.
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Additional info for Passivization and Typology: Form and Function
E/R < S (in Reichenbach’s terms). By the same token, (ge)worden, itself an Anterior/past participle, denotes an incremental event property, whereas being, a present participle, does not. Traditionally in German grammar writing, stative passives have received the following distinct explanations. (31) a. b. c. d. Ellipsis of the event denotation: Der Brief ist geöffnet (deleted worden) Structure: [Perfect-Aux. + verbal form] Diathesis/voice/verbal gender: Der Brief ist geöffnet as a consequence of Der Brief wird geöffnet.
See (28) vs. (29). (28) a. b. c. d. 1 I documenti vengono corretti dal capo the documents come checked by the boss “The documents are (being) checked by the boss” ... English ... French ... Latin ... 1 La iglesia es cerrada a las once ... 2 La iglesia está cerrada a las once the church is/has been closed at 11 stative passive with copula estar In German, copula passives are usually confined to perfective verbs. See (30a, b). 22 (22) Werner Abraham (30) a. b. Der Wagen ist geschoben *(worden) ...
13–28). Tübingen: Niemeyer. Abraham, W. (2005). Valence promiscuity and its consequences. Sprachtypologie und Universalienforschung (STUF), 58 (4), 21–45. Abraham, W. (2 2005). Deutsche Syntax im Sprachenvergleich. Grundlegung einer typologischen Syntax des Deutschen. Tübingen: Stauffenburg. ] Alleyne, M. (1994). Predicate structures in Saramaccan. In M. ), Studies in Saramaccan language structure [Caribbean Culture Studies 2]. Amsterdam/Kingston: UvA/UWI. Anagnostopoulou, E. (2003). Participles and voice.
Passivization and Typology: Form and Function by Werner Abraham (Ed.), Larisa Leisiö (Ed.)