By Syed Farid Alatas
The truth that the Malaysian kingdom has controlled to take care of a comparatively democratic regime, whereas an authoritarian regime got here to strength in Indonesia hasn't ever been the focal point of historic and comparative research regardless of sure cultural, social, and historic affinities among those international locations. This learn appears at how the interaction of 3 elements, that's, elite unity, inner kingdom power and armed resistance, ended in diverse results: authoritarian and democratic post-colonial states in Indonesia and Malaysia respectively. The ancient history is gifted to evaluate the impression of colonialism on pre-capitalist society in those colonies. this offers the context during which to appreciate the advance of the Indonesian and Malaysian states when it comes to changes within the measure of elite solidarity, kingdom energy, and the character of city and rural resistance opposed to the kingdom. during this manner assorted paths to nation kinds may be mapped.
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Extra resources for Democracy and Authoritarianism in Indonesia and Malaysia: The Rise of the Post-Colonial State
A study conducted by BoUen found that different levels of integration into the world economy are associated with different levels of democracy. Furthermore, peripheral position has a greater negative effect on democracy than does semi-peripheral position. 53 The independent variables that he employs to determine the effects on democracy of position in the world-system pertain to world-system positions. He did not break down this general variable into the various aspects of economic dependency such as has been done in studies by Chase-Dunn, Bornschier and Rubinson.
Political. or military and has often been crucial in the maintenance of many regimes. whether democratic or authoritarian. However. in this study. I will focus on the three internal factors defined above. I will argue. using the cases of Malaysia and Indonesia. that these conditions prevailed in the former and not in the latter. The experiences of the two countries vary in that there were more armed rebellions and secessionist movements in Indonesia than in Malaysia. and there are great contrasts between the two in terms of eHte cohesion and state strength.
They are a welcome corrective to works that tend to stress the role of internal factors as the determinants of post-colonial state forms. to the neglect of the international political economy. According to many dependency and world-system theorists. the usual political concomitant of economic development that obtained in the Theories of Democracy and Authoritarianism 33 industrialized nations of the core, do not exist in many peripheral and semi-peripheral societies because of their disadvantaged positions in the hierarchy of the world capitalist system.
Democracy and Authoritarianism in Indonesia and Malaysia: The Rise of the Post-Colonial State by Syed Farid Alatas