By J Levitt
Responses of crops to Environmental Stresses, moment variation, quantity I: Chilling, Freezing, and hot temperature Stresses encompasses primarily all of the environmental stresses which were intensively investigated. notwithstanding, this variation doesn't comprise mineral deficiencies, which include too huge and contain a box to be integrated with different stresses.
This booklet makes an attempt to research the probabilities of constructing unified suggestions of pressure damage and resistance. prepared into 4 elements, this version first discusses the tension suggestions, rather the strain and pressure terminologies, in addition to the character of rigidity damage and resistance. Stresses at chilling, freezing, and high-temperatures are addressed individually.
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Additional info for Chilling, Freezing, and High Temperature Stresses
Plants such as cotton and bean, become resistant to chilling temperatures on exposure to temperatures slightly above chilling. This hardening is pre sumably due to the observed increase in unsaturation of their fatty acids (Wilson and Crawford, 1974a), which lowers the phase transition tempera ture below the previously injurious chilling temperature. Both the mem brane fluidity and its normal high permeability to water are therefore re tained at chilling temperatures. Chilling-sensitive plants, on the other hand, when chilled to 5°C, undergo a rapid decrease in the percent of linolenic (or palmitoleic—Kane et a/ v 1978) acid (Wilson and Crawford, 1974b), and, therefore in the degree of unsaturation.
5. C. CHILLING RESISTANCE 1. Measurement and Development All plants from temperate climates and all psychrophiles among microor ganisms routinely survive exposure to chilling temperatures and, therefore, are fully chilling resistant. Plants from tropical and semitropical climates, on CHILLING RESISTANCE 47 the other hand, show varying degrees of resistance. Attempts have, there fore, been made to develop methods of measuring chilling resistance quan titatively. The usual method is simply to expose the plants to an arbitrary chilling temperature for an arbitrary time and to observe for injury.
1964) found a higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the mitochondria of chilling resistant- than in those of chilling-sensitive plants. Similarly, when fed acetate-2-14C at 10°-40°C for 5 hr, seeds of castor bean, sunflower, and flax showed an increased formation of unsaturated fatty acids at the low temperatures (Harris and James, 1969). Using artificial systems, Lyons and Asmundson (1965) showed that the phase transition points of mixtures of palmitic and linoleic, or palmitic and linolenic acids (the predominant fatty acids in plants) decrease slowly as the unsaturated fatty acid is increased to 60 mole%.
Chilling, Freezing, and High Temperature Stresses by J Levitt