By Bernard Testa, Urs A. Meyer
Quantity 27, the 1st thematic quantity within the sequence, presents an outline of current wisdom with reference to the pharmacological and scientific elements of antidiabetic medicinal drugs. It goals to stimulate additional attention of attainable ideas within the improvement of recent antidiabetic medicinal drugs.
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Additional info for Antidiabetic Agents: Recent Advances in their Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, Volume 27
PI 3-kinase is composed of an 85 kDa regulatory subunit and a 110 kDa catalytic subunit. , 1992). Activation of PI 3-kinase results in phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol molecules. , 1990). , 1993). , 1991). It appears possible that insulin-stimulated phospholipid phosphorylation plays a role in a signal-transmitting system that involves the activation of a phospholipase and subsequently the release of second-messenger products cleaved from membrane phospholipids. The characterization of IRS-1 has finally provided a basis for understanding the mechanism of insulin receptor interactions with phospholipid kinases.
The most common syndrome is sensory neuropathy with clinical signs of tingling, burning, cramps and pains, mainly in the legs and feet. Autonomic neuropathy presents clinically as damage to the cardiovascular, genitourinary and gastrointestinal tracts. The mortality rate appears to be high (50% in 3 years) resulting from renal failure and "sudden unexpected death". Despite the potential problems of Type-I diabetes, some patients do remarkably well and may survive 50 years or more without major complications.
Clinical symptoms in Type-I diabetes usually start when more than 90% of vital B-cells are destroyed. Patients present acute with symptoms of hyperglycaemia such as polyuria, polydipsia, weight loss and tiredness (Table 1). Minor symptoms may include cramps, skin infections and blurred vision. The duration of these symptoms is usually very short and may last for only 1-2 weeks (Gill, 1991). The most dangerous acute symptom of Type-I diabetes is the ketoacidotic coma, which is noted as a first sign in 10% of newly diagnosed patients.
Antidiabetic Agents: Recent Advances in their Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, Volume 27 by Bernard Testa, Urs A. Meyer