By Marc A. Williams
Pt. 1. floor amendment innovations -- pt. 2. Analytical options and purposes
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Extra info for Allergens and respiratory pollutants: The role of innate immunity
Dendritic cells are by far the most prolific professional antigen-presenting cell endowed with highly potent immune stimulatory functions in the settings of infectious disease, (26, 31–35) human cancer, (36–38) autoimmune disease (39, 40) and allergic inflammatory conditions including allergic asthma (1–9, 41–46) – an adverse pulmonary inflammatory disease that will be discussed in detail below. Dendritic cells are anatomically ideally located to sense and respond to the exogenous “respirable” environment.
This will of course require empirical determination. Nonetheless, many other studies have shown that vitamin D functionally dampens the maturation of DC, as evidenced by downmodulated expression of co-stimulatory molecules, dampened secretion of IL-12p70 and augmented IL-10 secretion. (116–119) It is possible, though highly speculative, that under such conditions, environmental particulate matter-stimulated lung DC could be conditioned to behave in a non-canonical but pro-allergic fashion, mediated in part by vitamin D and the “pro-allergic” pattern of DC maturation as we have proposed in several animal and human model studies of particulate matter exposure and non-classical differentiation and function of conventional DC.
143–145) On exposure to various PM species, we have shown dependence on both the TLR4 and TLR2 pathways of cellular activation and the adaptor protein MyD88 using targeted gene knockout mouse models. (2) The adaptor protein MyD88 is important for cell membrane-associated TLR signaling and transduces its signals via the p38MAPK and p40/p42MAPK (ERK I/II) group of mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent signaling pathways. We have previously studied the effects of APM on MyD88 gene knockout DC derived from mouse bone marrow (BM-DC) as compared their wild-type counterparts.
Allergens and respiratory pollutants: The role of innate immunity by Marc A. Williams