By Larry A. DeWerd, Michael Kissick
The objective and topic of this publication is to supply a finished review of all kinds of phantoms utilized in clinical imaging, remedy, nuclear drugs and overall healthiness physics. For ionizing radiation, dosimetry with recognize to problems with fabric composition, form, and motion/position results are all highlighted. For scientific imaging, each one form of expertise will want particular fabrics and designs, and the physics and symptoms can be explored for every sort. future health physics phantoms are fascinated by the various similar matters akin to fabric heterogeneity, but in addition targeted matters resembling organ-specific radiation dose from resources dispensed in different organs.
Readers may be in a position to use this ebook to pick the correct phantom from a seller at a health facility, to profit from as a pupil, to settle on fabrics for customized phantom layout, to layout dynamic positive factors, and as a reference for quite a few purposes. a number of the info enclosed is located in different resources, divided specifically alongside the 3 different types of imaging, remedy, and well-being physics. To our wisdom, even supposing professionally, many clinical physicists have to bridge the 3 catagories defined above.
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Extra info for The Phantoms of Medical and Health Physics: Devices for Research and Development
Coursey, B. , Hanson, W. , Hug, M. , et al. (1999). AAPM’s TG-51 protocol for clinical reference dosimetry of high-energy photon and electron beams. Medical Physics, 26, 1847. 7. , Burns, D. , Huq, M. , Smyth, V. , & Vynckier, S. (2000). Absorbed dose determination in external beam radiotherapy: An international code of practice for dosimetry based on standards of absorbed dose to water. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Report TRS-398. 8. , Battista, J. , Boyer, A. , Mackie, T. , et al.
Simpler variants that offer manual detector positioning for point dose measurement still contain many of the above properties in their construction. Although early water phantoms were fabricated in-house with specific tasks in mind, they now have become widely available and those employed in routine clinical use often are obtained commercially. In general, all have similar construction, with tanks having clear walls made of acrylic, open to the top. 2 Characteristics of Water Phantoms A 3D scanning system is able to position the detector to any point within the available limits of the scan axes.
The unique characteristic of this body phantom was designed to have an adjustable thickness to address the range of patient thicknesses encountered in the clinic. The height adjustment comes from the fact that the phantom is sliced in the coronal direction instead of the axial direction. The phantom had additional coronal phantom slices that could be inserted in the center of the phantom to increase the thickness as needed . Commercial phantoms may be sliced in the sagital or coronal direction but only by special order.
The Phantoms of Medical and Health Physics: Devices for Research and Development by Larry A. DeWerd, Michael Kissick