By Abdelhamid H. Elgazzar
The second one version of this publication has been considerably extended to fulfill the calls for of the expanding new pattern of molecular imaging. A separate bankruptcy at the foundation of FDG uptake has been additional. New to this variation are the extra clinically orientated information on scintigraphic reviews, their strengths and barriers with regards to different modalities. It additional includes many new pictures, illustrations and tables.
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The second one version of this ebook has been considerably accelerated to fulfill the calls for of the expanding new development of molecular imaging. A separate bankruptcy at the foundation of FDG uptake has been additional. New to this variation are the extra clinically orientated information on scintigraphic reports, their strengths and boundaries with regards to different modalities.
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Additional info for The Pathophysiologic Basis of Nuclear Medicine
Within the cell, there is an excess of anions due to negatively charged proteins that are impermeable. When a cell such as a neuron is stimulated through voltage-regulated channels in sensory receptors or at synapses, ion channels for sodium open and, as a result, there is a net movement of Na+ into the cell and the membrane potential decreases, making the cell more positively charged (Fig. 5c). The decrease in resting membrane potential is known as depolarization. At the point where the rapid change in the resting membrane potential reverses the polarity of the cell it is referred to as an action potential or simply a nerve impulse.
For example, insulin molecules stored in intracellular vesicles are secreted into the extracellular fluid following fusion of these vesicles with plasma membrane. By contrast, neurotransmitter molecules stored in synaptic vesicles of a presynaptic neuron are released into synapse only in response to an extracellular signal. 3 Transmission of Electrical Impulses Nerve and muscle cells are “excitable”; this implies that they are capable of self-generation of electrochemical impulses at their cell membranes.
Tumor-suppressor genes encode for proteins that act as negative transducers of growth factor stimulation. The p53 gene is an excellent example of a tumorsuppressor gene that encodes a 53-kd protein that binds in the nucleus and, at high levels, causes the cell to undergo apoptosis. A mutated p53 gene in a cancer cell may encode a mutant form of p53 protein without the ability to induce apoptosis. Mutations of the p53 gene are the most common DNA abnormality in more than 50% of cancers. 5. 2. 3.
The Pathophysiologic Basis of Nuclear Medicine by Abdelhamid H. Elgazzar