By Chris Alexander
Christopher Alexander, Canadian’s former ambassador to Afghanistan, bargains an inside of examine Afghanistan contemporary historical past, and can provide a blueprint for remodeling the bothered nation right into a achievable state. Alexander attracts on services won over 5 years at the floor in Afghanistan, chronicling the country’s preliminary successes following the Afghan warfare, the setbacks it incurred because of a resurgent Taliban, and the tenuous balance that multilateral international relations has introduced the war-torn but rebuilding nation.
Readers of Ahmed Rashid’s Descent into Chaos and Alex Berenson’s Lost in Kandahar will locate not more penetrating perception into Afghanistan’s previous, current, and destiny than Christopher Alexander’s probing, specialist dissection of a state at warfare with itself: The good distance Back.
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Additional resources for The Long Way Back: Afghanistan's Quest for Peace
38 after khomeini Khamenei firmly retained his control over the Revolutionary Guards, whose elite Qods (Jerusalem) Forces were directly subordinate to him, and over the Mobilizational Corps (Basij). He also maintained Khomeini’s pervasive network of clerical commissars, not covered by the Constitution, in the government bureaucracy, military and security services, religious and mobilizational organizations, the foundations and foreign relations, as well as the provincial and municipal Friday prayer leaders (imām jom‛as).
He could not overthrow Saddam Hussein the way he had the Shah. On March 16, 1988, the Iraqi army used chemical weapons to wipe out 4000 Kurds who had allied themselves with Iran, and used the same weapons to overwhelm some 5000 Iranian troops in the Fao peninsula. 35 The world, especially the United States, turned a blind eye to Iraq’s use of chemical weapons, and on July 3, an Iran Air commercial ﬂight was downed by a missile from the USS Vincennes, killing all 290 persons aboard. On July 17, Iran accepted a ceaseﬁre on the basis of UN Security Council Resolution 598, which it had earlier rejected.
Khomeini did not set up a government in a vacuum, however, but took over an existing one that had undergone considerable modernization in the course of the twentieth century. His project of the Islamicization of the Pahlavi state and its transformation into a Shi’ite theocracy required a drastic transformation of the Shi’ite legal tradition. From being what Max Weber called a “jurists’ law,” the Shi’ite religious law had to be transformed into the law of the modern state based on a written constitution.
The Long Way Back: Afghanistan's Quest for Peace by Chris Alexander