By Nadia von Maltzahn
Because the Iranian Revolution of 1979, the shut alliance among Syria and Iran has persevered for over 3 a long time, in response to geopolitical pursuits among the 2 states and sometimes framed within the language of resistance. In view in their robust dating at a state-level, what have Syria and Iran every one been doing to foster renowned trade and hire cultural instruments to construct a picture within the different state? The Syria-Iran Axis examines the motivations, content material and succeed in of cultural international relations among Syria and Iran to figure out to what measure the 2 companions were winning in bridging their global perspectives and political outlooks. via analysing the level to which a state-directed cultural alternate can foster bilateral family members within the heart East, Nadia von Maltzahn bargains a special research of the formation of overseas coverage and international relations within the zone.
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Because the Iranian Revolution of 1979, the shut alliance among Syria and Iran has persisted for over 3 many years, in response to geopolitical pursuits among the 2 states and sometimes framed within the language of resistance. In view in their powerful dating at a state-level, what have Syria and Iran every one been doing to foster well known trade and hire cultural instruments to construct a picture within the different state?
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Extra resources for Syria-Iran Axis: Cultural Diplomacy and International Relations in the Middle East
Indd 36 5/24/2013 6:20:45 PM HISTORICAL BACKDROP 37 in the region, Iran’s revolutionary ambitions to widen its influence in receptive circles such as the Lebanese Shi‘i community, and a general battle for control in Lebanon. Both sides’ commitment to work out their differences through diplomacy is reflected in the number of visits of high-ranking officials during this period. This is not to say that each side was entirely content with the other side’s conduct, and tensions certainly existed – in particular in the mid to late 1980s.
113 Regional Security: The ‘Six-Plus-Two’ Damascus Declaration During Rafsanjani’s Syria visit, the two presidents’ discussions on regional security centred on the Damascus Declaration, which Asad explained to his Iranian counterpart. indd 39 5/24/2013 6:20:45 PM 40 THE SYRIA-IR AN A XIS exclusion of Iran. In March 1991, the GCC states, Syria and Egypt – the ‘six-plus-two’ – had signed the Declaration, under which Syrian and Egyptian troops were to be stationed in the Gulf in return for $10 billion, to ensure post-war Gulf security.
37 A network of prominent Iranian, Iraqi and Lebanese Shi‘i clerics had been set up in the 1950s and 1960s. 39 As Alpher, writing about what he calls ‘The Khomeini International’, reports: ‘Together the exiles, the Syrians, and the Palestinians prepared cadres for revolutionary activity inside Iran. They organized arms smuggling operations into the country, using food transport trucks leaving Beirut to conceal weapons and explosives. They recruited supporters from the pro-Khomeini Iranian student movement, which they organized throughout the Middle East, Western Europe and the United States.
Syria-Iran Axis: Cultural Diplomacy and International Relations in the Middle East by Nadia von Maltzahn