By Montague Ruben, Terry Tarrant, E. Geoffrey Woodward
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Extra resources for Revision Clinical Optics
As can be seen from the diagram, visual response falls before a saccade and is essentially zero during the saccade. The latency of the pupil delays its response until after the saccadic movement has been completed. Flashes which observers fail to report may thus give rise to pupillary responses. Using photographic recording methods these responses can be used to measure defects in part of the nervous system concerned with the sensory-motor pupil reaction pathways. 00 2000 1. 0° 60 40 0 w 60 T N 0 0 z <(WW __J ::J--'r- (f)<=ICD -Z:::l ><(UJ N T Nasal field Temporal field Isopters are lines which join points at which test objects subtending the same visual angle are recognised, The vertical lines show the diameter of the test object in millimetres, the distance of the object from the eye in millimetres and the visual angle subtended.
196 and 197). g. prism binocular microscope (p. 156), stereoscopes (p. 184), applanation tonometer (p. 176). 55 REFRACTION AT A CURVED SURFACE B nSD n 1 I' n £ n 1 AM n 1- n r power of curved surface The incident rays are refracted at a curved surface. The sine law applies at the point of incidence. The normal is at right angles to the tangent at the point of incidence and the normal intersects the centre of curvature. A curved surface separating two media of different refractive indices produces a change in vergence, If TA is the wave front then the light energy will have traversed to M axially but only to S in the same time period.
18 12 Compensating factors are physiological nystagmus, resolution,depth of focus (p. l81 and 184). They all tend to affect this theoretical level of acuity. 34 Optokinetic Drum C T Speed control Tachometer The objective measurement of visual acuity may be carried out by eliciting optokinetic nystagmus when the patient is presented with a grating pattern on the surface of a rotating drum. Optokinetic nystagmus is elicited when the detail of the grating subtends a certain minimum angle size. The variables are (1) the dimensions of the grating, (2) the speed of rotation of the drum and (3) the distance of the subject from the grating.
Revision Clinical Optics by Montague Ruben, Terry Tarrant, E. Geoffrey Woodward