By Wui Chong, Paul Sidhu
Size of key parameters is a vital a part of studying ultrasound scans and differentiating common anatomy from pathology. Trainee radiologists and ultrasonographers frequently locate it tricky to achieve a very good appreciation of such measurements.
This publication is a effortless guide that may be utilized in day by day perform. it really is made from a sequence of ultrasound photos with accompanying explanatory line drawings including all key measurements. basic variations are given including levels for good points that adjust in the course of improvement. there's additionally an inventory of key references for every criterion.
Coverage is according to exam specifications making it really appropriate for trainee radiologists and ultrasonographers.
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Additional info for Measurement in ultrasound: a practical handbook
POSITION Supine and right anterior oblique. 0 MHz curvilinear transducer. METHOD Right longitudinal intercostal approach. APPEARANCE Tubular structure in the porta hepatis, branching into the right and left portal veins. MEASUREMENTS Normal portal venous velocity varies in the same individual, increasing after a meal and decreasing after exercise. The diameter is measured at the broadest point just distal to the union of the splenic and superior mesenteric vein, normally measuring 11 ± 2 mm. Color and spectral Doppler imaging demonstrates the portal venous system to be an isolated vascular unit with a relatively monophasic flow pattern with fluctuations with cardiac or respiratory movements.
31 32 Upper abdominal Hepatic artery PREPARATION None. POSITION Supine and right anterior oblique. 0 MHz curvilinear transducer. METHOD Right oblique intercostal approach. Locate the celiac axis anterior to the aorta and then follow the arterial branch that runs to the right. APPEARANCE The hepatic artery originates as one of the three major branches of the celiac axis, lying anteromedial to the portal vein at the porta hepatis. In 50% there is some anatomic variation or aberrant origin of the artery, either an accessory or more commonly a replaced artery.
APPEARANCE Tubular structure arising from the aorta. MEASUREMENTS The spectral Doppler waveform demonstrates pulsatile flow that may be triphasic. Stenosis of the IMA is diagnosed by velocity increase. Normal values PSV 98 ± 30 cm/s EDV 11 ± 5 cm/s Optimum threshold for stenosis ≥ 50% PSV ≥ 250 cm/s EDV ≥ 90 cm/s IMA/Aortic PSV ratio ≥4 Inferior mesenteric artery A longitudinal image through the lower aorta demonstrates the inferior mesenteric artery. FURTHER READING AbuRahma AF, Dean LS. Duplex ultrasound interpretation criteria for inferior mesenteric arteries.
Measurement in ultrasound: a practical handbook by Wui Chong, Paul Sidhu