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By G. J. Ramstedt

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The SHORT vowel is described as having neutral tone, meaning SHORT vowels 24 Chapter II do not participate in a tonal contrast (B&VS: 7), while the LOW TONE vowel is described as having low and level pitch (B&VS: 9, Pike 1946: 84). Accounts of HIGH TONE and GLOTTALIZED vowels are more detailed. B&VS claim that HIGH TONE has different realizations depending on the position of the syllable that bears high tone in the word: HIGH TONE vowels in final syllables (including monosyllables) start with high pitch which falls throughout the duration of the vowel, whereas vowels in nonfinal syllables do not fall in pitch in the same way.

30 Chapter II Vowel length is not influenced by gender, and it is only marginally influenced by location. 01) than in Mérida (xܳ = 88 ms). Vowel length is influenced by whether or not a word exists in the language or is a nonce form. As shown in Table 5, for each vowel shape, vowels are longer in nonce forms than in existing forms. In Table 6 we see that GLOTTALIZED vowels are longer in final position than in nonfinal position but that SHORT vowels are longer in nonfinal position. The latter is surprising given the well-documented phenomenon of phrase final lengthening (see Selkirk 1984).

Los Angeles: American Indian Studies Center. Fox, James Allan. 1978. Proto-Mayan Accent, Morpheme Structure Conditions, and Velar Innovations. D. Dissertation. University of Chicago. , Kenneth N. Stevens, Hong-Kwang Jeff Kuo, Janet Slifka. 2001. Towards models of phonation. Journal of Phonetics 29:451-480. Holmberg, Eva B, Robert E. Hillman, Joseph S. Perkell, Peter C. Guiod, Susan L. Goldman. 1995. Comparisons among aerodynamic, electroglottographic, and acoustic spectral measures of female. Voice.

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Kalmückisches Wörterbuch by G. J. Ramstedt

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