By F. R. Palmer
Because the ebook of his creation to Theoretical Linguistics (CUP, 1968), Sir John Lyons has been some of the most very important and across the world popular members to the learn of linguistics. In a profession that has spanned a number of many years, he has addressed himself to a large diversity of problems with basic significance and is very famous for his seminal two-volume paintings, Semantics (CUP, 1977). This quantity gathers jointly a suite of essays via exotic students on subject matters on the topic of Sir John's personal paintings.
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Extra info for Grammar and Meaning: Essays in Honour of Sir John Lyons
Even when they discovered their mistake, they continued to use Indian for the New World inhabitants. But the word also continued to be used (in English, at least) with its old sense and reference as well, creating an ambiguity in the term. ) Another case would be where the sense and reference both change. For example, the noun ship at an earlier period of time referred only to sailing vessels and had that sense; but when steam ships were invented, ship was applied to them as well. The shift of sense needed to include steamships in the reference of ship depends on defining ship as 'large vessel for travelling across water'.
The underlying agreement in linguistic networks, though allowing of some variation as well, allows us to draw inferences upon which we agree and to resolve our referential disagreements as they become manifest. We need only re-adjust our convictions about the reference assignments of others and aggregate our improved information. The method of aggregation does not guarantee that we shall agree in our reference assignment, but, being an average of our assignments and those of others, it does provide a method for improving our agreement.
These become the input vectors determining the sense or reference function of a word for an individual. The resulting sense or reference functions of individuals will then be regarded as vectors to be aggregated to determine a social or communal sense or reference function for the language. One typical form of aggregation is averaging a set of values to yield a significant average, for example, when one averages the heights of members of a population to determine the average height of a person in that population.
Grammar and Meaning: Essays in Honour of Sir John Lyons by F. R. Palmer