Download e-book for iPad: Dictionary of Contemporary Thought by David Kirby (auth.)

By David Kirby (auth.)

ISBN-10: 0333372700

ISBN-13: 9780333372708

ISBN-10: 1349174122

ISBN-13: 9781349174126

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Extra info for Dictionary of Contemporary Thought

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Constructivism 25 conceptualism As with MINIMALISM, conceptualism moves away from skill and dexterity in the arts and toward an intellectual rather than a sensual appeal. But whereas minimalism may still deal with objects, conceptualism dispenses with them altogether and offers slogans, handwritten notes, and other verbal or iconographic signs as a substitute for the representational. For a definition of philosophic conceptualism, see NOMINALISM. conscious The state of awareness; the mental state characterized primarily by the functioning ofthe EGO.

Behaviorism In its purest form, behaviorism rejects any concern with the invisible aspects of mind and deals only with observable response to stimuli, to reward and punishment. B. Watson introduced behaviorism in 1913 he insisted that the word "consciousness" be dropped from the vocabulary . The mind is a black box: stimuli go in, behavior comes out, and what goes on in the box is of no importance. The Russian Pavlov was even more fanatical, says Taylor, and would fine his students if they used the words "mind" or "mental.

This model is disputed by the steady-staters, who argue that new material is constantly being created. Such an assertion defies the law of conservation of energy (see CONSERVATION LAWS), but the steady-staters say that laws formulated in laboratories may not apply in the dark reaches of the universe. Recent work with radio telescopes has given the nod to the big-bang theory, however. For example, it has been proven that galaxies and quasars (quasistellar objects) are less numerous and less intense than they were in the past, suggesting that the basic components of the universe are both finite and diminishing, as the big-bang theory suggests.

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Dictionary of Contemporary Thought by David Kirby (auth.)

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