By José Luis Zamorano, Miguel Angel García Fernández (auth.)
Echocardiography has now reached its adulthood and performs a key position within the medical review of cardiac functionality. although, its skill to evaluate myocardial perfusion continues to be a medical problem.
Myocardial distinction echocardiography is a method that makes use of microbubbles. those microbubbles stay completely in the intravascular area and their presence in any myocardial sector denotes the prestige of microvascular perfusion inside that area. over the last few years, lots of learn reports were devoted to this subject. the most recent advancements in echocardiographic suggestions and second-generation distinction brokers permit for the capability review of myocardial perfusion and supply a correct endocardial border delineation.
In the current e-book, those new echocardiographic strategies devoted to the overview of myocardial perfusion are defined intimately via specialists from each side of the Atlantic. counsel and tips are incorporated, explaining the fundamental strategies which are had to comprehend and practice distinction echocardiography.
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Additional resources for Contrast Echocardiography in Clinical Practice
Am J Cardiol1985 8;56:4E-10E. 2. Marcus ML, Chilian WM, Kanatsuka H, Dellsperger KC, Eastham CL, Lamping KG. Understanding the coronary circulation through studies at the microvascularlevel. Circulation 1990;82:1-7 3. Hoffman JI. Determinants and prediction of transmural myocardial perfusion. Circulation 1978;58:381-91 4. Chilian WM. Coronary microcirculation in health and disease. Circulation 1997;95:522-8 5. Schwaiger M, Muzik 0. Assessment of myocardial perfusion by positron emission tomography.
Thus, at a low mechanical index, the tissue signal is mainly linear, and at a high mechanical index, a significant non-linear signal is produced through the tissue. Fundamental Frequency The generation of non-linear signals in the tissue is greater at lower frequencies. Also, when imaging for tissue harmonics, the attenuation, which is dependent on the frequency, is minimized by transmitting at relatively low frequency. Wave Transmission Distance The second harmonic intensity signal depends its distance from the transducer: the signal is stronger from the basal than from the apical part of the left ventricle.
Hoffman JI. Determinants and prediction of transmural myocardial perfusion. Circulation 1978;58:381-91 4. Chilian WM. Coronary microcirculation in health and disease. Circulation 1997;95:522-8 5. Schwaiger M, Muzik 0. Assessment of myocardial perfusion by positron emission tomography. Am J Cardiol1991;67:35D-43D 6. Passariello R, De Santis M. Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of myocardial perfusion. Am J Cardiol1998;81:68G-73G 7. Kaul S. Myocardial contrast echocardiography: 15 years of research and development.
Contrast Echocardiography in Clinical Practice by José Luis Zamorano, Miguel Angel García Fernández (auth.)