Read e-book online Cobordism of knots on surfaces PDF

By Turaev V.

We introduce a relation of cobordism for knots in thickened surfaces and learn cobordism invariants of such knots.

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1994; Stevens and Tibayrenc, 1996). Thus, T. b. rhodesiense can be characterized epidemiologically by its ability to reproduce by explosive clonal reproduction in response to changes in environmental/ ecological conditions, resulting in an outbreak of disease, whilst maintaining an important underlying level of genetic exchange. Analysis of T. b. rhodesiense from Zambia and T. 6. gambiense from C8te d’Ivoire (Stevens and Tibayrenc, 1996) indicated clonal population structures for these populations and suggested that their reproduction was predominantly GENETIC EXCHANGE IN THE TRYPANOSOMATIDAE 27 asexual.

1987). Analysis of T. congolense has been complicated by the discovery of several, previously unrecognized, subspecific groups. Isoenzyme analysis revealed the first of these groups, splitting T. , 1988; Knowles et al.. , 1993). The taxonomic status of these subgroups is uncertain, although Garside and Gibson (1995) have argued that Kilifi, at least, deserves species status on the basis of extensive genotype differences. Sidibe (1997; and see Tibayrenc, 1998) used a range of population genetics methods based on linkage disequilibrium statistics 28 W.

Epidemiological relationships of Trypanosoma brucei stocks from south east Uganda: evidence for different population structures in human infective and non-infective isolates. Parasitology 109, 95- 11 1. A. (1972). The Trypanosomes qf Mammals. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications. R. (1990). Gene genealogies and the coalescent process. Oxford Surveys in Evolutionary Biology 7, 1-44. Jenni, L. and Brun, R. (1982). A new in vitro test for human serum resistance of Trypanosoma ( T . ) brucei. Acta Tropica 39, 281 -284.

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