By Said Amir Arjomand
The foremost subject of this booklet is authority in Shi`ism with precise emphasis on its institutionalization in several ancient classes from the start of Shi`ism within the heart a long time to the current. half I provides new fabric on very important or missed concerns which are on the heart of present scholarly debate, together with the basic courting among wisdom and authority in pristine Shi`ism, points of pop culture in medieval Shi`ism, the institutionalization of non secular authority in Shi`ite Iran from the sixteenth to 18th centuries, and the centralization of non secular authority within the nineteenth century. The editor presents an research of the ideological revolution in Shi`ism throughout the Seventies and Nineteen Eighties. vital records and first assets were chosen for half II representing the key tendencies within the historical past of Shi`ism. With exceptions, those assets have neither been to be had in English translation nor simply available within the unique Arabic or Persian. an in depth creation by means of the editor successfully connects components I and II of the ebook.
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Additional resources for Authority and Political Culture in Shi’ism
The retention of the mantle of the Prophet endowed the office of Caliphate with the authority to legitimize the actual holder of power, the amir al-umara' who subsequently assumed the title of sultan. 9 Page 3 It can no longer be doubted that Sunni and Shi'ite Muslims shared the idea of the legitimate Caliph as the "Imam of guidance" [to salvation] in the first two centuries. 10 Nevertheless, the Shi'ite conceptions of authority developed along a radically divergent path. The Shi'a vehemently rejected the legitimacy of the established Caliphate and considered 'Ali and his descendants the rightful successors of the Prophet-and as such, entitled to khilafa(t)-and the divinely inspired and infallible (ma'sum)Imams (leaders) of the community of believers.
W. Arnold, The Caliphate,New York: Barnes & Noble, 1966 , pp. 202-203. 5. Cited in P. Crone and M. Hinds, God's Caliph. Religious authority in thefirst centuries of Islam,Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986, p. 85. 6. B. XLVI (1982), pp. 418-21. 7. R. P. Mottahedeh, Loyalty and Leadership in an Early Islamic Society,Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1980, pp. 185-86. 8. The Buyids, incidentally, came from Daylam, the stronghold of Zaydi Shi'ism in Iran. After conquering Baghdad in 945/334, the Buyids did not abolish the 'Abbasid Caliphate and retained the Caliph as a figurehead representing Islam with supreme authority over the application of the shari'a.
The invidious contrast between divine and human kingship in the Qur'an could only delegitimize the latter. The term mulk was thus tainted and Page 2 another Qur'anic term, sultan,was employed to denote legitimate political authority. 3 The term appears in the seventh/first century Egyptian papyri for governor,4 and was used by the Umayyad Caliphs. 5 Furthermore, the idea of kingship was not destroyed and reemerged in the eighth/second century as a result of Iranian influences. "7 The interdependence of religion and kingship became a major theme in the Islamic theories of government.
Authority and Political Culture in Shi’ism by Said Amir Arjomand