By Hugh Kennedy
In response to unique Arabic assets, the recent variation of this well-established textual content has been comprehensively revised. The e-book covers the lifetime of Muhammad and the delivery of Islam, in the course of the nice days of the Ummayad and Abbasid Caliphates (8th-10th centuries), to the interval of political fragmentation which it while Islam misplaced its center cohesion, by no means to be recovered.
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Additional resources for The Prophet and the Age of the Caliphates: The Islamic Near East from the 6th to the 11th Century (2nd Edition)
This supply of gold and silver certainly would account for the frequent mentions of large cash sums which we find in the traditional Arab accounts of the early history of Islam. The control of these trade routes and the enjoyment of the profits they produced were perhaps the most important factor in the preIslamic politics of the Arabian peninsula. The main problem faced by anyone attempting to organize the caravan traffic was to assure the passage of valuable goods through the lands occupied by nomad tribes.
Abraha was essentially independent of the ruler at Axum, and despite his attack on Mecca, he receives a good reputation in the Muslim sources. He repaired the great dams at Marib in an attempt to revive the agricultural economy and his attack on Mecca was a clear indication of his intent to bring eastern Arabian trade under his control. In the 570s, however, his successors were removed by a rebellion of the local people aided by a Persian fleet under one Vahrcz who eventually stayed on as Persian viceroy until after 628.
Despite this linguistic and ethnic unity, the Arabs had no central political organization or administration. In previous centuries there had been Arab kingdoms with some form of government but these had usually been on the fringes of the Arab lands and under the patronage or protection of outside powers. The most famous of these were the Nabatean kingdom of Petra, taken over by the Romans in AD 106 and the third-century kingdom of Palmyra (Tadmur), both states which derived much of their wealth from the control of caravan routes and both of which were heavily influenced by Greek and Roman culture.
The Prophet and the Age of the Caliphates: The Islamic Near East from the 6th to the 11th Century (2nd Edition) by Hugh Kennedy