By Steven L. Gersen Ph.D. (auth.), Steven L. Gersen PhD, Martha B. Keagle MEd (eds.)
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Additional info for The Principles of Clinical Cytogenetics
2), whereas in other countries (France, for example) R-banding is more common. Additional banding methods are occasionally employed to exemplify specific abnormalities or chromosome regions. Abbreviations commonly used to denote the various banding techniques appear in Table 2. Chromosome Regions and Band Designations The chromosomal details revea1ed by the new banding techniques necessitated the introduction of additional terminology and modifications of certain existing ones. This task was accomplished by a standing committee appointed at the Fourth International Congress of Human Genetics in Paris.
Therefore special ISCN definitions and roles have been devised for use with neoplasia. Clones A clone is defined as two cells that share the same abnormality or abnormalities, unless the change involves loss of a chromosome, in which case three such cells are required (due to the possibility of coincidental random chromosome loss). During tumor progression, related subclones may evolve; related or unrelated clones are separated by slashes [I] and the number of cells observed for each is given in square brackets [ ].
The example above uses the 96th DNA segment assigned to chromosome 4, D4S96. The locus designation must be 58 Avirachan Tharapel Table 4 Selected List of Symbols and Abbreviations Used for in situ Hybridization (ish) Nomenclature Abbreviation or Symbol + ++ x con ish nuc ish pcp sep wcp a For Description absent on a specific chromosome present on a specific chromosome duplication on a specific chromosome precedes the number of signals seen period, separates cytogenetic results from ish results connected or adjacent signals refers to in situ hybridization.
The Principles of Clinical Cytogenetics by Steven L. Gersen Ph.D. (auth.), Steven L. Gersen PhD, Martha B. Keagle MEd (eds.)