Get The fuzzy future from society and science to heaven in a PDF

By Bart Kosko

ISBN-10: 0609604465

ISBN-13: 9780609604465

This e-book seems at such fuzzy or grey matters as they come up within the electronic
age. yet simply what do those phrases suggest? what's fuzzy? what's electronic?

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The nucleus itself consists of positively charged protons together with electrically neutral neutrons. Each of these two particles is about 1833 times as heavy as an electron. This model is rough, being an old but picturesque model associated with Niels Bohr (1885–1962; NL 1922), the famous Danish physicist. One might expect the atomic weight of an element to be close to a whole number, namely the number of protons plus the number of neutrons in the nucleus, the mass of the electrons being so small that they can be neglected in a first approximation.

They are the leptons and quarks. ÔLeptonsÕ, based on a Greek word, refer to the lighter elementary particles. As to quarks, Murray Gell-Mann (b 1929, NL 1969) named them, following a remark by James Joyce in Finnegan’s Wake: ‘Three quarks for Muster Mark! ’ Indeed, as we see from the table, three quarks is exactly what is needed, not only by Muster Mark, but also for the construction of protons and neutrons, and also for the rarer baryons. The composite particles (baryons and mesons) appear further down the table.

Quarks have an additional ÔchargeÕ which comes in three distinct forms, so that the more familiar notion of positive and negative charge is not applicable. What can we possibly think of, to convey the idea of three types of charge, such that certain important combinations leave us without any charge? Physicists adopted ÔcolourÕ as the distinguishing marker: red, blue and some intermediate colour like green or yellowÑany three will do. Quarks feel the colour force, but have not been seen individually.

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The fuzzy future from society and science to heaven in a chip by Bart Kosko

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