A continuation of the treatise The Dosimetry of Ionizing Radiation, quantity III builds upon the principles of Volumes I and II and the culture of the preceeding treatise Radiation Dosimetry. quantity III includes 3 finished chapters at the functions of radiation dosimetry particularly learn and clinical settings, a bankruptcy on distinct and worthy detectors, and chapters on Monte Carlo options and their functions.
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Extra resources for The Dosimetry of Ionizing Radiation, Volume 3
D is the shield thickness (meters). p is the shielding material density (kilograms per cubic meter). For clarity, p is shown explicitly in the two factors of the exponential, pd and μΐρ. 4 x 10"3 m2 kg -1 ). B is a photon dose buildup factor, dependent on energy and material. In this context the value is not significantly different from unity and this factor is omitted in the discussion that follows. (\/Eo)dN/dü, is the yield of photons of all energies. 07e-"72 (photons sr"1 GeV"1 electron"1) (11) ho ail The first term corresponds to yield at small angles, 0-5°, from ΠΧ0 targets.
For larger effective target thicknesses, absorbed doses due to radiation scattered from the point of incidence dominated (Fig. 6e-h). Analysis of the absorbed dose rates as a function of incident beam energy (not shown here) led to the following generalizations: • For "thick" targets (t csc φ > 8 cm), absorbed dose rates were proportional to incident electron energy over the range 3 < E0 < 7 GeV. 2 cm and t csc φ < 2 cm), absorbed dose rates were independent of incident electron energy over the range 3 < E0 =£ 7 GeV.
1 0 (degrees) ^ v ^ / ς 180 Fig. 5. Photon absorbed dose rate from a typical beam absorber as a function of the angle Θ from the beam direction, normalized to 1 kW of beam power and to a source-to-detector distance of 1 m. [After Nelson et al. (1966) and DeStaebler et al. ] 1. DOSIMETRY AT HIGH-ENERGY PARTICLE ACCELERATORS 25 explicit: where D is the absorbed dose in grays per incident electron (1 Gy = 100 rad = 1 J/kg). EQ is the incident electron energy (giga-electron-volts). C is the conversion factor from fluence to absorbed dose, which is assumed constant after the depth of shower maximum within the shield.
The Dosimetry of Ionizing Radiation, Volume 3