By Nicholas Hewitt, Sarah Wasserman
The interval following global struggle II used to be considered one of severe cultural job as writers, artists and film-makers tried to reply to the drama of the war-experience itself and to the projects of ecu reconstruction. Italian neorealist film-makers, the recent new release of West German writers and the exponents of dedication in France looked to be exploring new instructions in cultural task and laying the floor for a brand new ecu renaissance. right here, 12 students discover features of French, German and Italian tradition within the years 1945-50, examine the confident components of this renaissance, yet become aware of a vital paradox - that the tradition of the recent, via either exterior and inner elements, was once extra conservative than is frequently obvious, and that reconstruction was once extra usually the rebuilding of the previous than an test at experimentation and innovation.
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Additional info for The Culture of Reconstruction: European Literature, Thought and Film, 1945–50
But it also meant that Marx, Engels and Lenin tended to be displaced from the centre of the PCI's elaborations. Together with Stalin and Dimitrov, these featured regularly in the pages of Rinascita, and pamphlet versions of their work were made widely available to the base of the Party. But they were amply balanced by names from a progressive Italian pantheon. Togliatti himself scarcely referred to Marx or Lenin in the mid-1940s, whilst he discursed freely on the merits and demerits of such figures as Giolitti, Salvemini, Dorso, Einaudi and Gobetti.
See Celso Ghini, 'Gli iscritti a! partito e alia FGCI', in Ilardi and Accornero (eds), Il Partita camunista italiana, pp. 227-92. 'Programma', La Rinascita, 1:1 Oune 1944); now reproduced in Palmira Togliatti, La palitica culturale, ed. Luciano Gruppi (Rome: Editori Riuniti, 1974) p. 64. For an acute portrait of Togliatti and his peculiar style, see Paolo Spriano, Le passiani di un decennia 1946-1956 (Milan: Garzanti, 1986) pp. 50-5. The classic account, however, remains Vittorio Gorresio, I carissimi nemici (Milan: Longanesi, 1949).
30 It alone could have created the conditions for a greater sense of definition in culture by clearly proposing a class discourse that would have avoided much of the confusion surrounding the vague notions of nation and people, he argued. Yet such a charge was surely the result of an extraordinary example of bad faith. For it was not the PCI but the Resistance that acted as midwife for the ideology of unitary, cross-class participation that marked Italian culture after the war. Furthermore, if Italian society expressed itself culturally at this time in terms of populism, rather than in purely class terms, it was not due to the strategy of the PCI, but because of the stage of development in which the country found itself: only partially penetrated by industrial development, with a very limited urban working class, an extensive peasant population and heterogeneous middle classes.
The Culture of Reconstruction: European Literature, Thought and Film, 1945–50 by Nicholas Hewitt, Sarah Wasserman