By J.D. Bernal
J. D. Bernal's huge paintings technology in heritage is the 1st full-scale try to learn the connection among technology and society all through historical past, from the perfection of the 1st flint hand ax to the development of the hydrogen bomb. This notable research illustrates the impetus given to and the restrictions positioned upon discovery and invention via pastoral, agricultural, feudal, capitalist, and socialist platforms, and conversely the ways that technological know-how has altered fiscal, social, and political views and practices.In this ultimate quantity, Professor Bernal enters the disputed box of the social sciences and offers an avowedly Marxist define in their background and of the social and political developments of our instances. Drawing on conclusions from historical past, he discusses in a last bankruptcy the longer term position of technology in society.
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J. D. Bernal's enormous paintings technological know-how in heritage is the 1st full-scale try and research the connection among technology and society all through heritage, from the perfection of the 1st flint hand ax to the development of the hydrogen bomb. This notable examine illustrates the impetus given to and the restrictions positioned upon discovery and invention by means of pastoral, agricultural, feudal, capitalist, and socialist platforms, and conversely the ways that technology has altered fiscal, social, and political opinions and practices.
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Extra resources for Science in History, Volume 4: The Social Sciences: A Conclusion
The Weak Nuclear Force Even inside the nucleus, the strong force does not go unchallenged. The electric interaction may be overmatched, but the protons still keep their positive charges. Every proton continues to repel every other proton, and the electric potential exerts its influence with a force hardly diminished by distance—and not just between neighboring particles, like the strong force, but between all possible pairs. The potential for destruction never disappears. Some nuclei are stable and last forever, but not all; and when the opposition becomes too much, a nucleus disintegrates.
And there it is, the spot in question. Crossing at right angles, the two basic directions appear separate and pure to our observer hopscotching east-west and north-south across the grid. A step to the east brings about no displacement north or south; a step to the south brings about no displacement east or west. Neither direction mixes with the other, but the pair of them together cover the two-dimensional space completely. Two perpendicular displacements are all one needs to navigate in two dimensions.
To a sprinter, the Earth is flat and the shortest way from start to finish runs along a straight line. It is a world that begins and ends with one dimension: To a sailor, the Earth is round and circumscribed by two dimensions, latitude and longitude: The shortest route between any two points curves along a great circle. To passengers in a plane, flying ahead smoothly with window shades down and all noise from the outside suppressed, the three-dimensional world inside is at rest. Cups and saucers stay where they are, as surely and steadily as they would on the ground.
Science in History, Volume 4: The Social Sciences: A Conclusion by J.D. Bernal