By Regis Bud J. Bates
This source offers the solutions that can assist you make all wanted judgements: monetary, administration, advertising, gear, functions, and protocols. Written by way of best-selling writer R.J. ìBudî Bates ñ whose previous books are telecom classics, youíll locate solutions to those crucial questions about optical switching and networking: 1) what's it? 2) What do i must learn about it? three) Whatís it going to do for me? four) How a lot is it going to price?
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Additional info for Optical Switching and Networking Handbook
Silica is good for the lower end of the operating frequencies, in the range of 800 to 1,100 nanometers. Other forms of fiber use a germanium dioxide mixture in the glass. This fiber type operates better in the range of 1,300 to 1,500 nanometers. Thus one can extrapolate that the quality of the various glasses is different and that by using different glass compositions, better results can be achieved. The dopants added to the glass mix create higher speeds and less loss. Fiber Cable Types The differences between the fibers come down to multimode and single-mode arrangement.
13 for copper (Category 5+) Performance Immune from RFI and EMI without extra cost of shielding on copper Ease of installation Ease of installation due to lower weight and thickness Distances Greater distance with fewer repeaters. Now can achieve 30 to 200 miles without repeaters. Copper and radio are limited to less than 30 miles. UTP digital transmission systems require repeaters every mile. 6 Tbps, copper achieves 100 Mbps, and coax can carry up to 1 Gbps Capable of carrying analog and digital Using TDM and WDM, the fiber is both digital and frequency multiplexed, increasing capacity 03_200023_CH02/Batesx 1/17/01 8:17 AM Page 45 Basic Fiberoptics Technologies 45 Bending Cables As light travels along the fiber, it is reflected from the interface between the core and cladding whenever it strays from the path straight down the center.
From there, frequency-division multiplexing (FDM)2 is used to combine the light beams operating at a certain wavelength on the fibers themselves. This is shown in Figure 1-11, where the combination of TDM and FDM is illustrated. As mentioned earlier, AT&T Bell Labs scientists became interested in light wave communication in the mid-1960s, when it became 2This is also called wave-division multiplexing because different signals are multiplexed at different wavelengths together. Chapter 1 22 Figure 1-11 The combination of TDM and FDM on fiber Amplifier Amplifier Signal weakening apparent that light waves had an enormous capacity for carrying information and were immune to electrical interference.
Optical Switching and Networking Handbook by Regis Bud J. Bates