By Filippi, De Stefano, Dousset, McGowan
MRI in White topic ailments of the mind and Spinal Cord.
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Extra info for MRI in White Matter Diseases of the Brain and Spinal Cord
Ghosting artifacts are seen in the phase encode direction due to periodic motion such as due to blood ﬂow (Wood and Henkelman 1985). Image blurring occurs due to random motion from signal cancellation (Fig. 14). Artifacts due to patient motion are minimized by immobilizing the patient. Gating to the cardiac cycle or respiratory cycle is used to minimize artifacts due to the heart beating or the patient breathing, respectively. Alternately, respiratory motion can be reduced by suspending respiration or performing a breathhold (Paling and Brookeman 1986).
28 The linearity of the high-power RF ampliﬁer refers to its ability to amplify a signal by a constant factor, that is, with constant gain, over a wide range of input amplitudes. This permits the low-power waveform which is input into the transmitter ampliﬁer system to be faithfully reproduced as a high-power RF excitation pulse. Therefore, it is desirable to have a highpower RF ampliﬁer with minimum variation in gain over the widest possible input amplitude range. 6 Radio-Frequency Receiver After nuclear spins in a sample have been excited by RF pulses, they precess in the main magnetic ﬁeld as they relax back to equilibrium.
2 Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery Mz White matter Grey matter Time Image Acquisition Inversion Time Fig. 9. Graphic representation of the recovery of longitudinal magnetization as a function of time for different tissues after an inversion pulse. , ﬂuid) leading to increased conspicuity of brain lesions (Frahm et al. 1986; De Coene et al. 1992). , 70% of T1 of CSF) combined with a long echo time for T2-weighting (Fig. 11). The suppression of the CSF signal leads to decreased artifacts from CSF ﬂow thereby enhancing the conspicuity of small lesions (Hajnal et al.
MRI in White Matter Diseases of the Brain and Spinal Cord by Filippi, De Stefano, Dousset, McGowan