By Pamela Cox
The 1st significant examine of the background of British "bad girls", this publication makes use of a variety of specialist, renowned, and private texts to discover the studies of women within the twentieth century juvenile justice approach. It examines the methods resulting in their definition as variously antisocial, faulty or ignored and analyzes the several probabilities for private and non-private reform made to be had to them. It exhibits how "bad girls", although few in quantity, posed a ordinary problem to proven generational and gender orders, and questions the preferred modern trust that "rising" delinquency between women has been the made from late-20th century social adjustments.
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Extra resources for Gender, Justice and Welfare: Bad Girls in Britain, 1900-1950
Over half had been committed by the Beacontree bench alone, a district bordering the east end of London. Decisions to commit the 147 Essex boys resident in Home Office schools during 1908 were more evenly distributed. Each of the 21 benches had sent at least one boy to a certified school, although again, almost half of these committals were made by the Beacontree bench. This evidence suggests that to the limited extent that juvenile delinquency was viewed as a serious social problem in Essex, this problem was constructed as a ‘boy problem’, and as a ‘Beacontree boy problem’ in particular.
76 The steady numbers of children appearing in the twentieth-century juvenile courts for status offences is particularly significant given the expansion of child welfare services and the early twentieth-century decline in the kinds of adult prosecutions (such as drunkenness, prostitution, child neglect and offences against the Education Acts) that often led to dependent children being seen to require state protection in the first place. At one level, this apparent paradox points to the fact that a general rise in living standards over the century was accompanied by a continual reinvention of concerns around child poverty and neglect.
Similar scenes were renewed in every class-room of the upper school. As she grew older and stronger, so her quarrelsome habits became more formidable. Her crowning outrage was a vicious tussle with her mother, which she terminated by knocking out, with a single blow, two of the woman’s incisor teeth. 52 These few examples suggest that girls’ violence was much more widespread than the criminal statistics would indicate, which in turn suggests that it was both under-reported and less likely to be prosecuted.
Gender, Justice and Welfare: Bad Girls in Britain, 1900-1950 by Pamela Cox