By Marjan Temovski
This thesis addresses karst improvement in a terrain characterised through a hugely complicated geological and geomorphological evolution. It tackles the level and complexity of either epigenic and hypogenic karst improvement, in response to morphological analyses of caves, mixed with analyses and datations of cave sediments and their correlation to neighborhood geological and geomorphological evolution.
Hypogenic karst registered is principally the results of hydrothermal speleogenesis as a result of elevated geothermal gradient in reference to within reach Pliocene-Pleistocene volcanic facilities, with incidence of sulfuric acid speleogenesis and ghost-rock weathering as a result of neighborhood geological or lithological keep an eye on. Epigenic speleogenesis is strongly managed via base point oscillations, with additionally examples of deep phreatic (now fossil) caves attached to neighborhood base point upward push, and per-ascensum speleogenesis.
Another very important discovering is the constraining of the timing of Mariovo Lake draining within the Pleistocene, an enormous occasion so one can comprehend the geomorphological evolution in Macedonia, because it resulted in the onset of fluvial improvement and incision of valleys, shaping lots of the current morphology.
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Extra resources for Evolution of Karst in the Lower Part of Crna Reka River Basin
4 40 Ar/39Ar Dating Samples of alunite and jarosite (pale yellow sand) from Provalata Cave were dated by the 40Ar/39Ar method at the New Mexico Geochronology Research Laboratory in Socorro, New Mexico, USA. Two aliquots of each sample were analyzed, one unwrapped and one wrapped in Ag with a platinum crimp. The second analysis was not a complete degassing. 2 Research Methods 37 but some higher step ages were apparent at the end of degassing, indicating minor to trace amounts of contamination from another older phase.
Paesaggi carsici: architettura di una relazione unica tra uomo e ambiente, Museo di Storia Naturale e Archeologia, Montebelluna, 181 pp. Dublyansky, Y. V. (2000). Dissolution of carbonates by geothermal waters. In A. Klimchouk, D. C. Ford, A. N. Palmer, & W. ), Speleogenesis: Evolution of karst aquifers (pp. 158–159). Huntsville: National Speleological Society. Dublyansky, Y. V. (2012). Design of two crushing devices for release of the fluid inclusion volatiles. Central European Journal of Geosciences, 4, 219–224.
During high flow, water rises in phreatic lift tubes emerging at overflow springs. During low flow, water follows lesser openings at lower elevations. This creates looping passages in the epiphreatic zone which are enlarged by aggressive high flows. Amplitude of the loops depends on vertical amplitude of the epiphreatic zone and with that on the height and velocity of flooding. The irregular recharge can be due to storms or from glacial or snow melt, or as the result of concentrated surface runoff into dolines.
Evolution of Karst in the Lower Part of Crna Reka River Basin by Marjan Temovski