By Masatoshi Nei
The aim of this booklet is to provide a brand new mechanistic concept of mutation-driven evolution according to fresh advances in genomics and evolutionary developmental biology. the speculation asserts, possibly a bit controversially, that the driver in the back of evolution is mutation, with normal choice being of purely secondary significance. The note 'mutation' is used to explain any type of switch in DNA akin to nucleotide substitution, gene duplication/deletion, chromosomal swap, and genome duplication. a quick heritage of the crucial evolutionary theories (Darwinism, mutationism, neo-Darwinism, and neo-mutationism) that preceded the speculation of mutation-driven evolution is usually awarded within the context of the final one hundred fifty years of study. although, the center of the ebook is worried with contemporary reports of genomics and the molecular foundation of phenotypic evolution, and their relevance to mutation-driven evolution. unlike neo-Darwinism, mutation-driven evolution is in a position to explaining genuine examples of evolution resembling the evolution of olfactory receptors, sex-determination in animals, and the overall scheme of hybrid sterility. during this experience the idea proposed is extra real looking than its predecessors, and provides a extra logical rationalization of assorted evolutionary events.
Mutation-Driven Evolution is acceptable for graduate point scholars in addition to expert researchers (both empiricists and theoreticians) within the fields of molecular evolution and inhabitants genetics. It assumes that the readers are familiar with easy wisdom of genetics and molecular biology.
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Extra resources for Mutation-Driven Evolution
These males and females are then mated to raise the next generation. If the heritable component of variation of the character is high, the response to selection or genetic gain (∆G) is high (Appendix D and Fig. 10). The proportion of heritable component of variation is called heritability (h2). If artificial selection is continued, the N E O - D A R W I N I S M A N D PA N S E L E C T I O N I S M 33 (A) Parent generation x– x–s Bristle number S (B) Offspring population Bristle number x– x–1 ∆G Fig.
Of polymorphic sites (%) 15 No. 8 Fig. 9. Observed and expected frequency distributions of mutant nucleotides for a central African population of humans. The expected frequency distribution for the stabilizing selection model is virtually the same as that for the competitive selection model. The number of polymorphic nucleotide sites used was 6924 for the protein-coding region and 269 323 for the intergenic region. The number of genomes sampled was 689. The least squares residual was nearly the same for the three models.
Now we assume that all individuals mate at random and consider the frequency of allele A in the next adult population. As long as N is finite, this frequency will not be equal to p but take some value (x) with a binomial distribution. 15) where 2N appears because we are considering 2N alleles in a diploid population. 15). 17) where (Wright 1931; Hedrick 2000). This Ne is called the effective population size. In this case if the sex ratio is 1:1, we have Nm = Nf and Ne = (Nm + Nf), which is the total population size.
Mutation-Driven Evolution by Masatoshi Nei