By Tuulikki Pietilä
This e-book reviews the long term advancements within the South African recording and provides to the present literature an figuring out of the superiority of casual negotiations over rights, rewards and tool within the recording undefined. It argues that patronage positive aspects frequently infiltrate the contractual relationships within the undefined.
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Additional resources for Contracts, Patronage and Mediation: The Articulation of Global and Local in the South African Recording Industry
BMG opened its office in South Africa in 1993. Sony opened its office in 1995. 17 When the parent company, PolyGram, was acquired and eventually merged with MCA/Universal Music Group, PolyGram South Africa became PolyGram Universal (and eventually Universal Music South Africa), and the catalogue of PolyGram South Africa was split between Universal and Gallo (Allingham, interview by the author 2013). As a result of these developments, in the mid-1990s, for the first time in its history, Gallo did not have any major international licenses (Allen 24 Contracts, Patronage and Mediation 2007, p.
The label representatives often say that recouping production costs has not been the practice in South Africa, because of the relative poverty of artists and their relatively low royalties (due to the low wholesale prices on which the royalties are calculated). 60 I will return to this issue in Chapter 7. In any case, it is common for artists in South Africa and elsewhere to make little, if any, royalties on an artist contract (unless their sales are sizable). Despite Gallo Music’s ownership of a deep back catalogue of South African music, EMI’s South African subsidiary CCP had the biggest market share of the local repertoire in the mid-2000s.
In 2013 Nick Matzukis (2013, p. 149), a specialist in music industry law, business and education, estimated the total number of record labels in South Africa to be approximately 1,000. A long-time industry insider and an owner of the Bula Music label, Clive Hardwick, estimated the number of the economically viable small labels in 2013 to be around 25. 66 The independent labels usually focus on releasing local music, even though the bigger ones also distribute foreign labels through licensing deals.
Contracts, Patronage and Mediation: The Articulation of Global and Local in the South African Recording Industry by Tuulikki Pietilä