By Olof Hallonsten
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Extra info for Big Science Transformed : Science, Politics and Organization in Europe and the United States
As a cognitive activity, surely embedded and entrenched in all kinds of (social) institutions, cultural habits, and discourse, but originating in thought and creativity, science is a fundamentally human endeavor and can originate only in individual minds. There is no such thing as a thinking organization, institution or system. g. Crease 1999; Greenberg 1999/1967; Heilbron et al. 1981; Hermann et al. 1987, 1990; Hewlett and Holl 1989; Hoddeson et al. 2008; Holl 1997; Kaiserfeld 2013; Krige 1996; Lindqvist 1993; Lowen 1997; Mody 2011; Riordan et al.
Which means, by extension, that the rational actor model must be contrasted against, and preferably used in combination with, excerpts of theory that account for macro- and meso-levels, and that enable acknowledgement of longer time frames and processes on other levels and scales. Institutions and Politics A key component of the conceptualization of a transformed Big Science (above) was the acknowledgement that there is continuity in its institutional embeddedness. g. Giddens 1991; Münch 1988), and each with an influence of some kind on our focal category of analysis: Big Science.
In brief, after the end of World War II in 1945, the Soviet nuclear test explosion and the Korean War in 1949–50, and the Sputnik Crisis of 1957, the old Big Science stood at its height. The political conditions then changed, by the Superpower détente in the wake of the Cuban Missile Crisis, the social upheaval of the late 1960s, and the collapse of the Bretton Woods system and the Oil Crisis in the early 1970s. These events provoked a renegotiation of the Social Contract for Science that brought a “squeeze” on Big Science in the late 1970s onward (Westfall 2008a), and the grip was not really 32 Big Science Transformed loosened until the mid-1980s, when the “Second Cold War” policies of the Reagan administration (Judt 2005: 592), in combination with new or complemented expectations and demands of (provable) competitiveness and accountability on science, gave renewed life to Big Science.
Big Science Transformed : Science, Politics and Organization in Europe and the United States by Olof Hallonsten