By Herbert N. Foerstel
From colonial instances to the current, the media in the US has been topic to censorship demanding situations and rules. This entire reference consultant to media censorship offers in-depth assurance of every media format?newspapers, magazines, films, radio, tv, and the Internet?all of that have been, and remain, battlegrounds for First modification matters. each one media layout is tested in-depth, from its origins and background via its glossy improvement, and contours dialogue of landmark incidents and instances. Foerstel, writer of Banned within the united states of america, the acclaimed reference advisor to ebook censorship in colleges and public libraries, bargains a short background of media censorship, examines in-depth the drama of 7 landmark incidents, and comprises 31 suitable proceedings. Complementing the amount are own interviews with famous sufferers of media censorship, who provide human voice to the fight of the media to stay unfastened, and an exam of censorship of the scholar press. interesting examples of media censorship abound, from Peter Zengers prerevolutionary trial for seditious libel to the fashionable tobacco industrys invocation of tortious interference to silence tv information and the present rash of web censorship incidents. bankruptcy 1 bargains a quick historical past of censorship of every of the media forms. bankruptcy 2 beneficial properties indepth research of 7 landmark media censorship incidents: the trial of John Peter Zenger, H. L. Mencken and the hatrack case, John Henry Faulk and the radio blacklist, revolutionary magazines expos^De at the H-bomb mystery, govt labeling of 3 documentary movies as political propaganda, televisions tobacco wars, and Carnegie Mellons try to censor scholars entry to the net. bankruptcy three examines 31 media censorship complaints from 1735 to 1997. bankruptcy four positive factors specific interviews with media figures thinking about censorship matters or cases?Paul Jarrico, Howard Morland, Peter Sussman, Daniel Schorr, Walter Cronkite, and Jerry Berman. Appendix A takes a glance at censorship and reaction concerning the pupil press in the course of the Nineties, after the landmark Hazelwood determination in 1988?an vital subject for college students in each highschool. Appendix B encompasses a source checklist of media advocacy and censorship corporations. a specific bibliography of books and digital assets completes the textual content. This quantity is of curiosity to highschool and school scholars, lecturers, librarians and students, and all those who find themselves stricken by those an important First modification matters.
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Additional info for Banned in the Media A Reference Guide to Censorship in the Press, Motion Pictures, Broadcasting, and the Internet
The "M" rating was for adults and mature young people. ) Movies rated "R" were not to be viewed by persons under sixteen years of age, unless accompanied by a parent or adult. The "X" rating meant that under no circumstances was a person under sixteen (later raised to seventeen) to be admitted to the theater. Such pictures were denied a seal. " Aaron Stern, director of the Code and Rating Administration, told movie producers that they were allowed to show love scenes, "but as soon as you start to unbutton or unzip you must cut.
We saw police take citizens from the stand like criminals, after they had been refused the right to defend themselves," said Bogart. " Bogart said the sound of that gavel rang across America, striking against the First Amendment to the Constitution. 33 Shortly after the conclusion of the HUAC hearings, intimidated studio heads met in New York. Eric Johnston, president of the Motion Picture Association of America, read a statement promising to discharge the Hollywood Ten. The statement concluded by promising not to reemploy any of the ten until such time as they were acquitted or had "purged" themselves of contempt and declared under oath that 34 they were not communists.
Actress Marsha Hunt, one of the "uncooperative" witnesses brought before the committee, recently recalled the sense of disbelief with which she and the others viewed the committee's tactics. "I was watching disgraceful be- 22 • Banned in the Media havior in those hearings. People weren't allowed to finish their statements. They were shouted at.... "32 Of the nineteen "unfriendly" witnesses subpoenaed, only eleven were called to testity; the last witness was Bertold Brecht, the famous German author of the Two Penny Opera.
Banned in the Media A Reference Guide to Censorship in the Press, Motion Pictures, Broadcasting, and the Internet by Herbert N. Foerstel