By Carmen Giunta
content material: Centuries of atomic concept: an outline --
Atomism earlier than Dalton --
a hundred and fifty years of natural buildings --
The atomic debates revisited --
Atoms are divisible: the items have items --
Eyes to work out: actual facts for atoms --
Rediscovering atoms: an atomic travelogue.
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Additional resources for Atoms in Chemistry: From Dalton’s Predecessors to Complex Atoms and Beyond
As a result of this association of alchemy with the priests, alchemy became identified with magic. After Rome conquered Egypt and Emperor Constantine converted to Christianity, the administration of the empire was dominated by Christians intolerant of those who did not agree with the official views. Many of the alchemists were Gnostics exiled from the Roman Empire in the fifth century, CE. Also expelled were the Nestorians who carried the writings of the Greek philosophers, which were translated into Syrian in Persia.
In the example above, the reaction is written as just such a reaction. Kekule's paper specifies, for the first time, that the atoms in radicals are bound together in an explicit arrangement (in terms of their chemical affinities), although he did not take the further step to specify that each chemical substance has a single, unique structure. That was left to the Russian, Butlerov. The clearest statement of the importance of structure comes towards the end of Kekule's paper, in a section entitled, "Constitution der Radikale.
30. (a) Maimonides, M. : London, 1947; Pt. 1, Chapters 71, 73. (b) Pullman, B. , Translator; Oxford University Press: New York, 1998; Chapter 11. 31. Holmyard, E. J. Introduction. htm (accessed February 1, 2010). 32. Leicester, H. M. : New York 1956; p 80. 33. Norton, T. : Baltimore, 1929; p 79. 34. Pullman, B. , Translator; Oxford University Press: New York, 1998; Chapter 9. 35. (a) Gregory, J. C. , Translator; Oxford University Press: New York, 1998; p 23. (b) Leicester, H. M. : New York 1956; p 110.
Atoms in Chemistry: From Dalton’s Predecessors to Complex Atoms and Beyond by Carmen Giunta