New PDF release: A history of the theories of aether and electricity Vol 2

By Edmund T. Whittaker

Specified, debatable, and regularly pointed out, this survey bargains hugely specific bills in regards to the improvement of rules and theories concerning the nature of electrical energy and area (aether). effectively obtainable to common readers in addition to highschool scholars, academics, and undergraduates, it contains a lot info unavailable elsewhere.
This single-volume version includes either The Classical Theories and the fashionable Theories, which have been initially released individually. the 1st quantity covers the theories of classical physics from the age of the Greek philosophers to the past due nineteenth century. the second one quantity chronicles discoveries that ended in the advances of contemporary physics, concentrating on particular relativity, quantum theories, normal relativity, matrix mechanics, and wave mechanics. famous historian of technology I. Bernard Cohen, who reviewed those books for Scientific American, saw, "I understand of no different heritage of electrical energy that's as sound as Whittaker's. All those that have came across stimulation from his works will learn this informative and actual heritage with curiosity and profit."

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The nucleus itself consists of positively charged protons together with electrically neutral neutrons. Each of these two particles is about 1833 times as heavy as an electron. This model is rough, being an old but picturesque model associated with Niels Bohr (1885–1962; NL 1922), the famous Danish physicist. One might expect the atomic weight of an element to be close to a whole number, namely the number of protons plus the number of neutrons in the nucleus, the mass of the electrons being so small that they can be neglected in a first approximation.

They are the leptons and quarks. ÔLeptonsÕ, based on a Greek word, refer to the lighter elementary particles. As to quarks, Murray Gell-Mann (b 1929, NL 1969) named them, following a remark by James Joyce in Finnegan’s Wake: ‘Three quarks for Muster Mark! ’ Indeed, as we see from the table, three quarks is exactly what is needed, not only by Muster Mark, but also for the construction of protons and neutrons, and also for the rarer baryons. The composite particles (baryons and mesons) appear further down the table.

Quarks have an additional ÔchargeÕ which comes in three distinct forms, so that the more familiar notion of positive and negative charge is not applicable. What can we possibly think of, to convey the idea of three types of charge, such that certain important combinations leave us without any charge? Physicists adopted ÔcolourÕ as the distinguishing marker: red, blue and some intermediate colour like green or yellowÑany three will do. Quarks feel the colour force, but have not been seen individually.

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A history of the theories of aether and electricity Vol 2 by Edmund T. Whittaker

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