By Robert Boyd, Peter J. Richerson
Oxford provides, in a single handy and coherently geared up quantity, 20 influential yet earlier fairly inaccessible articles that shape the spine of Boyd and Richerson's path-breaking paintings on evolution and tradition. Their interdisciplinary examine relies on notions. First, that tradition is important for realizing human habit; not like different organisms, socially transmitted ideals, attitudes, and values seriously impact our habit. Secondly, tradition is a part of biology: the ability to procure and transmit tradition is a derived component to human psychology, and the contents of tradition are deeply intertwined with our biology. tradition then is a pool of data, saved within the brains of the inhabitants that will get transmitted from one mind to a different by means of social studying techniques. for this reason, tradition can account for either our notable ecological luck in addition to the maladaptations that symbolize a lot of human habit. The curiosity during this assortment will span anthropology, psychology, economics, philosophy, and political science.
There is far to profit from the paintings of Boyd and Richerson, and the initiative to compile a few of their scattered papers during this quantity is laudable. many pro anthropologists, biologists, philosophers and psychologists drawn to the research of tradition and the evolution of brain and behaviour will make the most of it. --Metapsychology
"This e-book is a must have for philosophers of psychology, philosophers of biology, philosophers of the social sciences, and, extra regularly, anyone who's drawn to the evolution of brain and behavior." --Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews
"Boyd and Richerson have lengthy set a 'gold standard' of brilliant, average writing on evolutionary social science...they have patiently outfitted strong, powerfuble, certainly predictive versions of the way people developed and the way tradition advanced as humanity's designated type of behavior...they are actual experts on either biology and culture...the authors have produced a great spouse quantity, no longer through Genes by myself, which makes their paintings available to all."--CHOICE
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Additional resources for The Origin and Evolution of Cultures (Evolution and Cognition)
The ﬁtness of learning individuals increases as the amount of imitation increases because learners make fewer errors. The ﬁtness of imitating individuals also increases at ﬁrst because they are imitating learners who make fewer errors. If imitation is common enough, ﬁtness eventually declines because the population fails to track the changing environment. The ﬁrst effect is apparently sufﬁcient to lead to a net increase in average ﬁtness at evolutionary equilibrium. It is important to understand that this increase in average ﬁtness is only a side effect of selection at the individual level.
Learners engage in costly learning trials that usually allow them to acquire the locally optimal behavior but also sometimes lead to errors. As shown in Appendix 1, this model yields the same qualitative result as Rogers’s model. Imitation evolves but does not beneﬁt the population in the long run. Imitators Can Detect Learners Unlike the simple organisms in Rogers’s model, humans do not blindly imitate a randomly chosen individual. Rather, they often evaluate the behavior of many individuals and choose the one that seems best, a process we have labeled biased transmission (Boyd and Richerson, 1985).
1988. Imitation in animals: History, definition, and interpretation of data from the psychological laboratory. In: Social learning: A biopsychological approach, T. Zentall & B. G. Galef, eds. (pp. 1–28). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erbaum. Hauser, M. 1988. Invention and social tranmission: New data from wild vervet monkeys. In: Machiavellian intelligence: Social expertise and the evolution of intellect in monkeys, apes, and hen, R. W. Byrne & A. Whitten, eds. (pp. 327–344). Oxford: Clarendon Press.
The Origin and Evolution of Cultures (Evolution and Cognition) by Robert Boyd, Peter J. Richerson