Download PDF by K. Stolzenburg: The Emergence of Quantum Mechanics (Mainly 1924–1926)

By K. Stolzenburg

ISBN-10: 0444865012

ISBN-13: 9780444865014


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The target atom then becomes excited, or even ionized if an atomic electron leaves the nucleus and Repulsion Attraction becomes unbound. Given the small mass of the electron, the kinetic energy received by an ejected electron in the ionization process can be quite large. These swift electrons are called delta (8) rays, and their energy can be sufficiently high to cause further (secondary) ionization before they lose their entire energy and are subsequently re-absorbed in the atom. W h e n the amount of energy transferred to the atomic electron is small, on the order of its excitation or ionization energy, the interaction is called a "soft collision".

6 NUCLEARDECAY The stability of a nucleus is not absolute, and can be disrupted by the addition of external energy as in the case of nuclear interactions, or by spontaneous radioactive disintegration as a nucleus decays in attempt to reach a more stable state. ' radiation, and some other particles, as explained in the following sections. We begin, however, with an overall (macroscopic) analysis of the decay process. ~ Kinetics Consider a radioactive material containing No nuclei at time t - 0. Let X be the probability per unit time that this material will decay, one way or another.

However, due to the repulsive force between protons, the lowest energy of the proton gas is slightly higher than that of the neutron gas, which explains why for heavy nuclides, where the electric repulsion between the protons is strong, there are more neutrons to achieve a stable (minimum energy) state. In lighter nuclides, the ground energy for both the ground states of the protons and neutrons are not very different from each other, and the number of neutrons and that of protons tend to be equal.

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The Emergence of Quantum Mechanics (Mainly 1924–1926) by K. Stolzenburg

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