By William Powrie

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Note, however, that the flownet has been drawn on the basis that there is no drawdown outside the line of the retaining wall: in reality, a drawdown in the sand outside the line of the retaining wall would move the upper equipotential further from the excavation and probably reduce the upward hydraulic gradient below the excavation floor. 42 shows a plan view of an excavation underlain by a confined aquifer of uniform thickness 20m. The aquifer is bounded on two sides by a river having a water level h=12m above datum level.

Explain the shape of this graph. Calculate the preconsolidation pressure and the slopes of the one-dimensional normal compression line and unloading/reloading lines. 2. E'0/γw iii) by inference, the vertical permeability kv. (b) Assuming that the sample is fully saturated at the end of the test, the specific volume at this stage is given by vf = (1 + ef ) = (1 + wf . 190. h. 2: v against ln(σ'v) O – A: “elastic” reloading A: maximum previous preconsolidation pressure (200 kPa); sample moves onto normal (first) compression line A – B: normal (first) compression: “elastic” plus plastic (irrecoverable) deformation.

The reason for this is unclear, but possible causes include the development of a rupture and/or sample anisotropy. 1a, φ'crit ≈ 20½°. 1. These gave the following results. 8 kPa Using data from all three tests, plot peak and critical state strength failure envelopes on a graph of τ against σ', and comment on the data. 2 a and b). In each case, s' locates the centre of the circle, and t gives the radius. 2kPa. 2b: Mohr circles of stress at critical stress ratios (t/s')crit The peak strength failure envelope is curved due to the decreasing effect of the dilational component of strength as the effective stress is increased, with φ'peak (defined as tan1[τ/σ']peak = sin-1[t/s']peak) decreasing from 27° in test 3 to 20½° in test 1.