By Jurgensen T.M., Guthery S.B.
The whole clever card guidebook for decision-makers, product managers, builders, and integrators. * shrewdpermanent card program improvement from begin to end: layout, improvement, and deployment * Covers each element of a whole process: playing cards, readers, host software program, administration platforms, and extra * makes a speciality of complicated "post issuance programmable" multi-application shrewdpermanent playing cards * offers designated case stories and product insurance * bargains up to date insights into the evolving shrewdpermanent card market and shrewdpermanent card know-how"
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Extra resources for Smart cards
Hence, programs or data can be stored in EEPROM during normal operation of the card and then read back by applications that are using the card. The electrical characteristics of EEPROM memory are such that it can only be erased and then reprogrammed a finite (but reasonably large) number of times, generally around 100,000 times. While somewhat limited, techniques have evolved which make this type of memory quite useful for typical smart card uses. EEPROM memory cells tend to be about a factor of four larger than ROM memory cells.
Why is this simple packaging approach so profound? Because it provides all the necessary capabilities in a very small physical package and it conceals the interconnections between the various computer elements inside the chip itself, thereby enhancing the security of what's going on (or what's stored) in the computer. Once the elements of the computer are integrated into a single chip, it becomes very difficult for an outside observer to intercept signals flowing among the various elements and to subsequently discern the information content of those signals.
General-purpose smart cards have between 8 KB and 96 KB of ROM. Here one finds various utility routines such as those for doing communication and for maintaining an on-card file system along with encryption routines and special-purpose arithmetic routines. Code and data are placed in readonly memory when the card is manufactured and cannot be changed; this information is hard-wired into the card. NVM is where the card's variable data—such as account numbers, number of loyalty points, or amount of e-cash—is stored.
Smart cards by Jurgensen T.M., Guthery S.B.