By Goerg H. Michler
This booklet is exclusive in its specialize in micromechanical procedures of polymers and their position to enhance the homes of polymeric fabrics. It combines the designated wisdom of constitution and morphology of polymers with the reason and theoretical interpretation of micro- and nanoscopic procedures and mechanisms in numerous polymers. therefore, it bargains a greater knowing of correlations among constitution and estate of approximately all polymers utilized in business functions. the data of those correlations is a key for winning improvement of polymers with better homes.
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Additional info for Nano and Micro Mechanics of Polymers
4 Polymer Modification 25 patibility and the processing method used. Incompatible polymers, such as PS with PE or PP, show strong phase separation with the formation of large particles. 26 shows SEM micrographs of fracture surfaces of a PP/PS (85/15) blend without and with compatibilizer. 26 a, b), large PS particles are visible in the PP matrix. Under load, the cracks follow the particle interface and unveil the spherical shape of the PS particles and debonding from the matrix. 26 c, d). 26 Phase separation in PP/PS (85/15) blends a), b) without compatibilizer c), d) with 3 % PP/PS block copolymer used as compatibilizer (fracture surfaces, SEM) Several processes are used to enhance the compatibility between the polymer phases, including grafting, mixing with compatibilizers (block copolymers, graft polymers), or reactive blending.
J. Polym. 55 – 86 33. 161 34. : Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 273 – 295 35. : Angew. Makromol. Chem. 185 – 205 36. 98 – 101; Kunststoffe Plast. Eur. 1 – 4 37. : J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 1658 – 1669 38. ; Fakirov, S. 327 39. 1 nm up to 100 µm, including different polymer phases and inorganic particles or fibers, the micro- and nanomechanical properties and mechanisms can be extremely different. Consequently, different methods and techniques must be applied. In this chapter, an overview on methods to analyze structure and morphology is provided, followed by a review of methods of nano- and micromechanical analysis.
20. 20 a). 20 b. 20 c) can be used to detect crystalline structure and orientation. 21, ). Such structures appear when highly oriented melts crystallize in the form of a bundle of oriented (longer) macromolecules – the “shish” – and smaller perpendicular lamellae of folded macromolecules – the “kebabs”. 22. 3. 4 Polymer Modification As mentioned earlier, more than 80 % of the volume of all existing polymers consists of the so-called mass polymers or commodities. In the near future, it is not to be expected that new polymers with clearly improved properties will be synthesized on the basis of new monomers.
Nano and Micro Mechanics of Polymers by Goerg H. Michler