By Ching H. Yew, Xiaowei Weng
Revised to incorporate present parts thought of for today’s unconventional and multi-fracture grids, Mechanics of Hydraulic Fracturing, moment version explains probably the most very important good points for fracture layout — the power to foretell the geometry and features of the hydraulically prompted fracture. With two-thirds of the world’s oil and typical fuel reserves devoted to unconventional assets, hydraulic fracturing is the easiest confirmed good stimulation approach to extract those assets from their extra distant and complicated reservoirs. even though, few hydraulic fracture types can appropriately simulate extra advanced fractures. Engineers and good designers needs to comprehend the underlying mechanics of ways fractures are modeled in an effort to safely expect and forecast a extra complicated fracture network.
Updated to deal with today’s fracturing jobs, Mechanics of Hydraulic Fracturing, moment version allows the engineer to:
Understand advanced fracture networks to maximise of completion strategiesRecognize and compute tension shadow, that may vastly impact fracture community patternsOptimize completions by means of safely modeling and extra correctly predicting for today’s hydraulic fracturing completions
Discusses the underlying mechanics of constructing a fracture from the wellbore more desirable to incorporate more moderen modeling parts similar to pressure shadow and interplay of hydraulic fracture with a average fracture, which aids in additional complicated fracture networksUpdated experimental stories that practice to today’s unconventional fracturing cases.
Table of contents :
Front subject, Pages i-ii
Copyright, web page iv
Preface to the 1st variation, Pages vii-viii
Preface to the second one variation, web page ix
Chapter 1 - Fracturing of a wellbore and 2nd fracture types, Pages 1-22
Chapter 2 - 3-dimensional fracture modeling, Pages 23-48
Chapter three - Proppant delivery in a 3D fracture, Pages 49-68
Chapter four - Deviated wellbores, Pages 69-88
Chapter five - Link-up of mini-fractures from perforated holes, Pages 89-103
Chapter 6 - Turning of fracture from a deviated wellbore, Pages 105-131
Chapter 7 - Fracture propagation in a certainly fractured formation, Pages 133-175
Chapter eight - rigidity shadow, Pages 177-196
Chapter nine - Experimental stories, Pages 197-220
Notations, Pages 221-222
Author Index, Pages 223-226
Subject Index, Pages 227-234
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Extra resources for Mechanics of Hydraulic Fracturing (2nd Edition)
The proppant settles into the bottom portion of the fracture due to the action of gravity and a low fluid velocity in the region. As the proppant concentration increases, the borehole pressure and the fracture opening width begins to increase and the growth of fracture begins to slow down as shown in the fracture contour plot of Fig. 3-3. 52. Under this circumstance, the hydraulic fracture ceases to grow and continuous pumping causes only a rapid increase of the borehole pressure and fracture opening width as shown in the Figs.
1 @w @ 1 @w þ dx¢ dy¢ @x r @x¢ @y r @y¢ (2-21) where h i1=2 r ¼ ðx À x¢Þ2 þ ðy À y¢Þ2 , T ðx; yÞ ¼ À½pðx, yÞ À smin ðx, yÞ where p(x, y) ¼ fluid pressure; smin(x, y) ¼ in situ stress distribution; G, v ¼ shear modulus and Poisson’s ratio of the rock, respectively. Since the above equation is a 2D surface integral equation, only the surface of fracture needs to be divided into elements in the numerical evaluation of the equation. However, the integral converges only in a Cauchy principal value sense.
It is therefore possible to obtain an accurate numerical integration. Furthermore, the regularity requirement of function w(x, y) is relaxed. For the inner integral on the right-hand side of Eq. (2-22) to exist, the requirement is that w(x, y) must be continuous. A simple Lagrange interpolation function can be used in the numerical discretization. Three-dimensional fracture modeling 29 The Galerkin method  is used to discretize Eq. (2-22). The function w(x, y) is represented by a linear combination of basis functions fi (x¢, y¢), i ¼ 1, 2, Á Á Á, N, that is, wðx¢; y¢Þ ¼ N X fi ðx; yÞwj (2-23) j¼1 Substitution of Eq.
Mechanics of Hydraulic Fracturing (2nd Edition) by Ching H. Yew, Xiaowei Weng