Download e-book for iPad: Managing Projects with GNU Make (Nutshell Handbooks) by Robert Mecklenburg

By Robert Mecklenburg

ISBN-10: 0596006101

ISBN-13: 9780596006105

The software easily often called make is without doubt one of the such a lot enduring positive factors of either Unix and different working platforms. First invented within the Seventies, make nonetheless turns as much as at the present time because the crucial engine in such a lot programming tasks; it even builds the Linux kernel. within the 3rd version of the vintage handling initiatives with GNU make, readers will research why this application keeps to carry its best place in venture construct software program, regardless of many more youthful opponents. the basis in the back of make is straightforward: when you swap resource documents and wish to rebuild your software or different output records, make exams timestamps to determine what has replaced and rebuilds simply what you wish, with out losing time rebuilding different records. yet on best of this straightforward precept, make layers a wealthy choice of thoughts that allows you to manage a number of directories, construct diversified models of courses for various structures, and customise your builds in alternative ways. This variation makes a speciality of the GNU model of make, which has deservedly turn into the typical. GNU make comprises strong extensions which are explored during this booklet. it's also well known since it is loose software program and gives a model for nearly each platform, together with a model for Microsoft home windows as a part of the unfastened Cygwin venture. handling tasks with GNU make, third version presents instructions on assembly the wishes of enormous, sleek tasks. additionally further are a couple of attention-grabbing complex issues akin to portability, parallelism, and use with Java. Robert Mecklenburg, writer of the 3rd variation, has used make for many years with a number of systems and languages. during this booklet he zealously lays forth easy methods to get your builds to be as effective as attainable, decrease upkeep, keep away from error, and punctiliously comprehend what make is doing. Chapters on C++ and Java offer makefile entries optimized for tasks in these languages. the writer even incorporates a dialogue of the makefile used to construct the booklet.

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Sample text

Next we copy our prerequisite files (and all their subdirectories) into the temporary directory. Then we switch to our temporary directory and create the jar with the target filename. We add the manifest file to the jar and finally clean up. Clearly, we do not want to duplicate this sequence of commands in our makefile since that would be a maintenance problem in the future. We might consider packing all these commands into a recursive variable, but that is ugly to maintain and difficult to read when make echoes the command line (the whole sequence is echoed as one enormous line of text).

In the first phase, make reads the makefile and any included makefiles. At this time, variables and rules are loaded into make’s internal database and the dependency graph is created. In the second phase, make analyzes the dependency graph and determines the targets that need to be updated, then executes command scripts to perform the required updates. When a recursive variable or define directive is processed by make, the lines in the variable or body of the macro are stored, including the newlines without being expanded.

Here the only target, $(OUTPUT_DIR)/very_big_file, has no prerequisites, so make will simply execute the actions (assuming the file doesn’t exist). The command is $(free-space). So make expands this as if the programmer had written: /tmp/very_big_file: /usr/bin/printf "Free disk space " /usr/bin/df . | /usr/bin/awk 'NR = = 2 { print $$4 }' Once all variables are expanded, it begins executing commands one at a time. Let’s look at the two parts of the makefile where the order is important. As explained earlier, the target $(OUTPUT_DIR)/very_big_file is expanded immediately.

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Managing Projects with GNU Make (Nutshell Handbooks) by Robert Mecklenburg

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