By Franz Rosenthal, Dimitri Gutas
In guy as opposed to Society in Medieval Islam, Franz Rosenthal (1914-2003) investigates the tensions and conflicts that existed among members and society because the concentration of his learn of Muslim social heritage. The publication brings jointly works spanning fifty years: the monographs The Muslim notion of Freedom, The Herb. cannabis as opposed to Medieval Muslim Society (Brill, 1971), playing in Islam (Brill, 1975), and Sweeter than desire. criticism and wish in Medieval Islam (Brill,1983), besides all of the articles on unsanctioned practices, sexuality, and institutional studying. Reprinted right here jointly for the 1st time, they represent the main huge choice of resource fabric on these kind of issues from all genres of Arabic writing, judiciously translated and analyzed. No different learn thus far provides the landscape of medieval Muslim societies of their manifold points in as precise, finished, and illuminating a manner.
Author: Franz Rosenthal. Edited by means of Dimitri Gutas.
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Extra info for Man Versus Society in Medieval Islam
The Hebrew-Aramaic dictionary of Gesenius-Buhl, 16th ed. v. ḥ-r-r II. No truly satisfactory etymology has as yet been discovered for Greek eleutheros either, according to M. Pohlenz, Griechische Freiheit (Heidelberg, 1955), 189. Cf. A. Reifenberg, Ancient Jewish Coins, 2nd ed. (Jerusalem, 1947), 58 (dating from the first revolt), 60 ff. Dîwân, ed. H. Macartney (Cambridge, 1919), 449. v. ḥ-r-r. Cf. the Arabic dictionaries, among them the Lisân al-ʿArab, loc. cit. the linguistic terminology 33 used more widely when Islam came into contact with the philosophical thinking of the Mediterranean world that had known speculation about freedom for many centuries.
Since both competition and envy are not material but psychological qualities, someone like Abû Ḥayyân at-Tawḥîdî might easily have been dissatisfied with the saying. For him, “man’s laziness comes from his clay (ṭîn), while his active energy comes from his soul. ” Cf. lmtâʿ, II, 194. A particularly good and probably quite old, if fictitious, example is the brief letter of Muʿâwiyah to ʿAlî, beginning with “Give up envy” and ending with a reference to Qurʾân 113:5, cf. Naṣr b. Muzâḥim al-Minqarî, Waqʿat Ṣiffîn, ed.
It is very well possible that some emotional process originally indicated by the root ḥ-s-d took a strongly positive connotation (and occasional negative connotation) in one place and a strongly and exclusively negative connotation in another. In the same vein, it should be observed that the comparatively close agreement in meaning between Arabic ḥasad and our “envy” is not something to be taken for granted but is, on the contrary, rather exceptional as internal psychological processes rarely are defined linguistically in identical ways in different languages.
Man Versus Society in Medieval Islam by Franz Rosenthal, Dimitri Gutas