By Alison Middleditch MCSP, Jean Oliver MCSP SRP
This publication goals to supply therapists with the history wisdom they require ahead of they could effectively and competently deal with sufferers with musculoskeletal problems of the backbone. For before there was no utilized anatomy booklet masking the entire backbone written through therapists to fit their necessities
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Additional info for Functional Anatomy of the Spine
Luschka joints of the cervical spine. Radiology, 66, 181. , eds. (1967). Cervical Spondylosis. London: William Heinemann Medical Books. Brown C. (1983). Compressive invasive referred pain to the shoulder. Clin. , 173, 55. C. (1980). Articular tropism and stability of the lumbar spine. Spine, 5, 2, 168. K. (1983). Thoracic outlet syndrome: current concepts and surgical experience. Int. , 68, 337. R. (1959). The medial inclination of the human thoracic interverté bral articular facets. /. Anat, 93, 68.
Except in slim patients, the apophyseal joints may be difficult to palpate in this region. However, if one of these joints has marked degenerative changes with swelling, it can be more easily located. e. the L3/4 apophyseal joint lies level with the lower third of L3's spinous process. At the L5/S1 level, the joints lie slightly more laterally and caudally than above. Transverse processes. e. the tip of L3's transverse process lies level with the L2/3 interspinous space. The length of the transverse processes increases from LI to 3, then decreases again.
In the normal erect posture, if the articular surfaces are viewed in the sagittal and coronal planes, it is evident that the facets lie parallel to each other. During axial compression, it is suggested that the facets slide relative to each other and, as they do not impact, they are not involved in weight-bearing (Bogduk and Twomey, 1987). If the normal alignment of the facet joints is altered, the apophyseal joints may then become involved in the weight-bearing process. This situation may occur if a vertebral body rocks backwards on the subjacent intervertébral disc without also sliding backwards, so that the tips of the inferior articular processes impact onto the superior articular facets of the vertebra below.
Functional Anatomy of the Spine by Alison Middleditch MCSP, Jean Oliver MCSP SRP