By Giovanni Sartor, Pompeu Casanovas, Mariangela Biasiotti, Meritxell Fernández-Barrera
Legal ontologies have proved an important for representing, processing and retrieving felony info, and should gather an expanding value within the rising framework of the Semantic net. regardless of the numerous examine initiatives within the box, a collective mirrored image at the theoretical foundations of felony ontology engineering was once nonetheless lacking. This ebook bridges the distance, by way of exploring present methodologies and theoretical techniques to criminal ontologies. It gathers sixteen papers, every one of them featuring matters and suggestions for ontology engineering with regards to a specific method of, or element of, the legislations: comparative legislation, case-based reasoning, multilingualism, advanced- structures, sociolegal research, criminal conception, social ontology, ontology studying, computational ontology, carrier ontology, cognitive technological know-how, rfile modelling, huge criminal databases, medical, linguistic and legal-technology views. The publication will hence curiosity researchers in criminal informatics, synthetic intelligence and legislations, criminal idea, felony philosophy, criminal sociology, comparative legislations, in addition to builders of functions in line with the clever administration of felony details, in either e-commerce and e-government (e-administration, e-justice, e-democracy).
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Additional info for Approaches to Legal Ontologies: Theories, Domains, Methodologies
The preconditions for applying a concept make the concept dependent upon the reasons justifying its application, while effects deriving from the application of the concept indicate what conclusions the concept is a reason for. Such reasons can be supported by rationales, and they can be attacked by contrary reasons (reasons why the concept should not be applied or why we should not, given certain situations, derive its conclusions). These underlying dialectics get lost when we take a definitional attitude.
13 In this sense, when a legal scholar speaks of contract any other domain expert should be able to recognise the concept and therefore know what kind of entity the term refers to. Nevertheless, the conceptual map of the domain does obviously not remain always the same, but a certain conceptual dynamics exists, a sort of evolution of legal conceptual systems due to changes in regulation or to judicial interpretation that either modifies the intensional14 or extensional15 definition of concepts, or creates new concepts.
18 The same concept can even exist in different subdomains and have different meanings in each of them. Concepts like “wilful misconduct” and “negligence”, for instance, are not the same in criminal theory and in civil responsibility theory) (Vernengo 1986: 235–236). 30 M. Fernández-Barrera and G. 19 Three are the main branches of the hierarchy as described in The Institutes of Gaius: persons, things and actions. Each of them is further divided into more specific classes. Persons are divided into free and slave, dependent and independent, in curatorship and in guardianship.
Approaches to Legal Ontologies: Theories, Domains, Methodologies by Giovanni Sartor, Pompeu Casanovas, Mariangela Biasiotti, Meritxell Fernández-Barrera