By Thomas S. Popkewitz
The writer investigates the discourse of up to date academic reform utilizing a thematic viewpoint (rather than a chronological one) of nineteenth- and 20th-century background. The publication starts with an exam of the crucial conceptual and historic concerns within the examine of academic switch.
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Extra resources for A Political Sociology of Educational Reform: Power/Knowledge in Teaching, Teacher Education, and Research
Individualization was coupled with new forms of the pastoral that made confession a secular event. Knowledge of self was to be organized and supervised by a professionalization of social affairs; psychology, an invention of modernity, is a central discipline for defining new patterns to supervise individ~ality. The knowledge pf progress was itself a social practice that tied issues of power to the construction of identity. It is these relations of epistemology, in_stitutions, and power that I believe guide the study of the structural relations that define school reform.
To assume the validity of global categories of power is to lose sight of the complex social structuring in particular soci~l (oqnations; a r~pressive thesis about power is accepted that ignores its productive elements. To consider the dynamics of social life, we need to attend to a second meaning for structure:. Changing bpundaries g,nd poipts of interac;tion among institutions and social systems define structural patterns. Perceiving structural patterns as sets of relations that are not linear but have breaks with the past provides the criteria for studying change.
Progress was identified as a problem of science and society. Secularization replaced virtue and piety as the purpose of pedagogy with virtue and rationality. The rational control of nature and people would in turn organize the development and innovation of society. The sociaf reform of institutions replaced an earlier moral concern with converting the sinner. It is at this conjunction that the creation of mass schooling and state building emerged. The discourses of state and schooling were similar: To govern is to provide strategies by which development and discipline can be meshed in the name of social welfare.
A Political Sociology of Educational Reform: Power/Knowledge in Teaching, Teacher Education, and Research by Thomas S. Popkewitz